Factors Affecting Children’s Mortality Due to Traffic Accidents Using Haddon Model and Statistical Process Control in Ardabil Province, Iran

Background: The under-five mortality rate is one of the most important indicators of sustainable development, and accidents and injuries are the leading causes of child mortality. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the factors affecting child mortality from road traffic accidents in Ardabil province, Iran. Methods: This descriptive-analytical study investigated all mortalities of children under 5 years from road traffic accidents and injuries that occurred in Ardabil within 2013 and 2021. Standard questionnaires of the Child Health Department of the Iran Ministry of Health and Medical Education were used to collect data. Based on the Haddon matrix, the data were classified into three groups, namely Pre-event, Event, and Post-event. P-charts were used in statistical process control to control the care process in the system and identify specific and general causes. The data were analyzed in SPSS software (version 24). Results: A total of 64 mortalities occurred in the period under review. According to the Haddon Matrix analysis, environmental factors had the greatest impact in the Pre-event phase (41.6%); nevertheless, human factors had the greatest impact in the Event phase (62%) and the Post-event phase (46.8%). Conclusions: Given that road traffic accidents are the leading cause of accidents and unintentional injuries in Iran, with a rate of 38.3%, it is necessary to enhance safety-related knowledge and skills, develop safe streets and roads, ensure child safety in cars, and promote safe vehicle use. As for the regulatory bodies, enforcing strict driving rules and regulations, providing necessary monitoring and control, and facilitating access to emergency centers should be the top priorities.