A Review of Toxicity Studies of Zirconium and Its Derivatives

Zirconium (Zr) is known to be one of the metal compounds. Due to low toxicity, this compound is frequently used in biosensors, dentistry, and treatment of cancer. This review summarizes the studies conducted on Zr toxicity in vivo and in vitro. Overall, it has been concluded that Zr can be a poisonous component because it disrupts many different tissues and cells when exposed for an extended period of time. It has been observed that Zr induces oxidative stress in cells, resulting in cell death. These nanoparticles (NPs) have been shown to halt the cell cycle, breach various physiological barriers, and exert detrimental effects. As zirconium nanoparticle production is still under development, a standardized method has not been established. Consequently, the characteristics and functionality of these NPs may undergo alterations, potentially compromising their efficacy and safety.