Antifungal Effects of Common Mouthwashes on Candida Strains Colonized in the Oral Cavities of Liver Transplant Recipients in South Iran in 2014

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Background: Among the opportunistic microorganisms, fungi, particularly Candida, play an important role in the mortality of transplant recipients. Thus, controlling and preventing fungal colonizations in various parts of the body, including the oral cavity, can reduce the possibility of post-transplant invasive fungal infections. This can be done simply by using mouthwashes. Objectives: The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of fungal species of Candida within the oral cavities of liver transplant recipients, and to evaluate the effects on Candida colonization of different exposure times to common mouthwashes. Patients and Methods: Specimens were taken from the oral cavities of 101 liver transplant recipients who were referred to our clinic for their first monthly examination. After cultivation and DNA extraction, yeast strains were identified with the RFLP technique. Each strain’s susceptibility to 0.2% chlorhexidine, Vi-One, Oral-B, Nanosil D1, and Nystatin mouthwashes was determined based on the CLSI M27-A2 standard method. Results: The obtained data were analyzed using SPSS. Out of 101 samples from liver transplant recipients, 68 cases showed fungi growing within the culture media (67.4%). C. albicans and C. glabrata, respectively, were the first and second most frequent types. Mouthwash susceptibility tests revealed that their antifungal effects over 60 seconds were significantly higher than with an exposure time of 30 seconds. At both 30 and 60 seconds, chlorhexidine was significantly the most efficient. Conclusions: Chlorhexidine mouthwash with an exposure time of 60 seconds or more is suggested as an effective antifungal agent to be included in the medication regimen of liver transplant patients pre- and postoperatively, in order to prevent fungal colonization and subsequent systemic infections.