Estimation of PM2.5 Pollutant and Risk of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) in Ahvaz, Iran

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Background: Urban air pollution was known to be one of the most important environmental problems due to its serious impact on human and environmental health. Among air pollutants, PM2.5 was the most common pollutant emitted by vehicles and dust and had negative consequences for human health, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Objectives: This study aimed to assess the change levels of PM2.5 pollutants and their effect on COPD outcomes in ten years (2008 - 2017) in Ahvaz. Methods: Data were taken from the Ahvaz Department of Environment (ADoE). Data validation was performed using WHO criteria. The average time of PM2.5 was computed, and its health effects were obtained by entering its annual data and population at risk, baseline incidence (BI), and relative risk index for COPD outcomes in AirQ + software. The PM2.5 concentration average in total time changes in Ahvaz city was higher than the standard concentration set by WHO. The AQI index indicated that the city of Ahvaz did not have a good day in total during the ten-year time. Results: The result of time changes and AQI index indicated that 2010 was the most polluted year with 47 unhealthy days and 27 dangerous days. Also, with the enhancement in the PM2.5 annual concentrations, the mortality attributed to this pollution has increased as a consequence of the COPD outcome. The highest and lowest average cases COPD were 24 people in 2010 and 18 people in 2014, respectively. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, the air quality of Ahvaz city was in an unfavorable condition in terms of PM2.5 pollutions and the authorities should take the necessary measures to control and reduce pollution in the metropolis of Ahvaz for PM2.5 and reduce the mortality for the COPD health outcome.