Detection of Respiratory Co-Infections in Children Less Than Five Years With Adenovirus Infection

Background: Acute respiratory tract infection is associated with significant morbidity, mortality, and economic loss worldwide. Viral infections seem to be responsible for 80% of the cases. There are several reports on the influence of dual or multiple respiratory viral infections on the severity of disease in childhood. Objectives: A limited number of studies have been conducted on co-infection of Adenovirus (AdV) with coxsackievirus, human bocavirus (HBoV) and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) in Iran. To address this, the present article focuses on both the etiology and epidemiology of multiple microbial respiratory infections (coxsackievirus, HBoV, MP and influenza virus) and their clinical significance in young Iranian children with confirmed AdV infection. Patients and Methods: Molecular detection of HBoV, coxsackievirus, MP and influenza virus was performed by conventional PCR in 71 respiratory adenovirus-positive samples obtained from children younger than 5 years of age. Results: Among the 71 adenovirus-positive samples, 6 (8.4%) were co-infected, three were co-infected with MP and three of which were co-infected with influenza A/H3N2. Of the six patients with co-infection, four were male and two were female; three patients were less than 1 year of age and the remaining were 2, 3 and 4 years of age. Moreover, there were two inpatients and four outpatients. Conclusions: Although several studies have investigated viral respiratory co-infection, no study has evaluated the rate of respiratory co-infections in adenovirus-positive samples from children younger than 5 years. However, this study has filled this gap, the the number of co-infections were too small to draw any definite conclusions. Therefore, large-scale studies using bigger samples are required to understand the clinical significance of polymicrobial acute respiratory infections.