Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of Escherichia coli Isolated from Various Clinical Samples in Duhok City, Kurdistan Region of Iraq

Background: Escherichia coli (E. coli) is one of the most common causative agents of bacterial infections. The emergence of multidrug-resistant E. coli is a major public health threat worldwide. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the antibiotic susceptibility profile of clinical isolates of E. coli from different samples. Methods: A total number of 454 clinical samples, including urine, wound, cervical swab, blood, semen, ascetic, and cerebral spinal fluid samples were collected from patients between January 2017 and February 2020. Then, E. coli was confirmed and susceptibility to different antibiotics was determined using the Vitek-2 compact system. Results: Escherichia coli isolates were more frequent in females (70.7%) than in males (29.3%). In the case of urine samples, E. coli was found to be highly susceptible to ertapenem (97.6%) and imipenem (96.4%) but resistant to ampicillin (87.8%). For wound and cervical swabs, E. coli was 100% resistant to ampicillin and cefepime but 100% sensitive to ertapenem and imipenem. It was found that E. coli isolates from blood samples were 100% resistant to ampicillin, ceftriaxone, and cefoxitin, and around 75% of them were sensitive to ertapenem, ciprofloxacin, and levofloxacin. Finally, E. coli isolated from other clinical samples were highly sensitive to ertapenem, imipenem, levofloxacin, nitrofurantoin, and cefazolin. Conclusions: Escherichia coli isolated from various clinical specimens showed differences in antibiotic sensitivity patterns, with high resistance to commonly used antibiotics. The most effective antibiotics against E. coli isolates were ertapenem, imipenem, and nitrofurantoin. However, the clinical isolates of E. coli displayed high resistance rates to ampicillin, ceftriaxone, and cefepime. Therefore, it is proposed to perform antibiotic sensitivity testing by physicians to select the most effective antibiotics.