A Report of Pediatric Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis in a Hospital-Based Study

Background: The reports of Iranian Pediatric Langerhans Cell Histiocytosis (LCH) are rare and there is no specific survival rate for those cases. Objectives: This study was designed as a hospital-based project for evaluating the epidemiological data and survival rates of the mentioned patients. Methods: This was a cross-sectional descriptive study that enrolled patients younger than 15 years old with approved LCH malignancy. Data was gathered based on a unique questionnaire and analyzed by SPSS Software version 25. Results: There were 32 cases (male/female ratio = 0.88) who were categorized as high risk (n = 18), moderate (n = 9) and low risk (n = 5), respectively. The mean age of patients was 5.1 years and the common chief complaint in them was bone pain, with the skeleton site of involvement. The 5-years overall and event-free survival rates were 93.3% and 72.9%, respectively. Conclusions: The suggestion is to provide a national registry for pediatric LCH followed by designing future projects around affective genes on the treatment response of the mentioned patients. In that way, we can improve the survival rate of these patients and decrease mortality.