Evaluation of Risk Factors for Pediatric Cancers in the West of Iran

Background: Occurrence of pediatric cancers is affected by maternal, environmental, and hereditary/genetic factors. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the correlation between background radiation, ultrasound and other possible risk factors for pediatric cancers incidence indicators. Methods: In a cross-sectional study during 2 years, 103 patients under 14 years were studied. A total of 13 environmental, maternal and hereditary/genetic risk factors were studied, and the study was performed by using a questionnaire, measurement of background radiation, and statistical data. Incidence in the studied sample size at city (ISSSC) and incidence in the studied sample size at area (ISSSA) indicators were defined. Results: The mean age of patients was (6.31 ± 3.22) including 54 (52.4%) males and 49 (47.6%) females. History of repeated ultrasound before gender determination (RUBGD) and repeated ultrasound during pregnancy (RUDP) were statistically higher in solid tumors group. Toxic substances (TS) and pediatric medical ionizing radiation (PMIR) was higher in hematologic malignancies. Statistically significant association were found between of cancer types and Family history of leukemia (FHL), Family history of solid tumors (FHST), Abortion history (AH), Maternal smoking during pregnancy (MSDP), Children’s residence place (CRP), and background radiation (BR) variables. No statistically significant association was found between cancer types and maternal pregnancy age (MPA), IVF baby, and maternal ionizing radiation exposure (MIRE) variables. Conclusions: Pediatric cancers are multifactorial diseases. Increased background radiation is correlated with an increased incidence of all pediatric malignancies. It seems that increasing ultrasound scans might increase the risk of solid tumors in children.