The Protective Effects of Pistacia Atlantica Gum in a Rat Model of Aluminum Chloride-Induced Alzheimer’s Disease via Affecting BDNF and NF-kB

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative condition characterized by progressive cognitive deterioration, including deficits in memory and other cognitive functions. Oxidative stress and free radical damage play significant roles in its pathogenesis. This study aimed to investigate the potential anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects of Pistacia atlantica gum (administered at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg for 14 days) in a rat model of AD induced by aluminum chloride (AlCl3). Behavioral changes were assessed using open field, passive avoidance, and elevated plus maze tests. Additionally, nitrite levels, nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), and immunostaining were evaluated. Administration of P. atlantica gum significantly increased step-through latency in the passive avoidance test (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001), enhanced mobility in the open field test (P < 0.01 and P < 0.001), and reduced anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze (P < 0.001) compared to the AlCl3 group. Treatment with the gum partially normalized the elevated levels of NF-κB and the decreased levels of BDNF caused by AlCl3 exposure. Our findings suggest that P. atlantica gum administration may alleviate oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, and cognitive impairment in AD rats.