Efficacy of Dexamethasone and Methylprednisolone in Hospitalization Outcomes of COVID-19 Patients: A Comparative Retrospective Study

Background: Control of the COVID-19 pandemic, its treatment, and prevention of mortality and morbidity have been the main focus of researchers over the past two years. Due to disagreement on the usefulness of different corticosteroids in the treatment of COVID-19, this work compared the efficacy of dexamethasone and methylprednisolone in the treatment outcomes of intensive critical care (ICU) patients. Methods: The present retrospective cohort study examined clinical records of 105 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in the ICUs of Firoozabadi Hospital in 2021. Clinical outcomes, including the length of hospital stay, the need for a ventilator, and mortality, were compared between patients who received either dexamethasone (DXM) or methylprednisolone (MP). Data were analyzed by SPSS V.20 software at P < 0.05 as statistical significance. Results: The mean ± SD ages of the patients in the DXM and MP groups were 58.82 ± 19.29 and 60.66 ± 14.17 years, respectively, without a statistically significant difference (P > 0.05). The mean duration of hospitalization was 8.14 ± 4.36 days in the DXM group and 6.80 ± 3.34 days in the MP group (P = 0.295). Also, 19 (33.3%) cases in the DXM group an, 19 (39.6%) in the MP group needed mechanical ventilation during hospitalization (P = 0.546). Finally, 30 (52.6%) patients in the DXM group and 27 (56.2%) in the MP group died. Conclusions: The findings indicated no significant difference in the mean duration of hospitalization, the need for a ventilator, and mortality in COVID-19 ICU patients treated with methylprednisolone or dexamethasone. There is a need to perform meta-analyses owing to conflicting results regarding the effects of different corticosteroids on the COVID-19 course.