Journal of Medical Education

In Collaboration with Virtual School of Medical Education and Management, SBMU

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Publication of Research evidences in the Field of Research and Innovation in Medical Education & Practice in Order to:
• Improving Health Outcomes/ Educational Needs;
• Setup/Establishment/Development Schools without Walls;
• Training Future Health Profession

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Now showing 1 - 20 of 497
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    Long-Term Memory And Learning Through The Use Of Research Centered Teaching Method
    (Brieflands, 2001-03-31) Nayer Rassaian
    The present study aims at exploring the relation between long term memory and two teaching methods: Research-Centered Teaching and customary lecturing.  The promotion of exploratory thinking which  is provoked  in the Research­ Centered Teaching  Method  is considered  to lead to hypothetical research and analytical thinking among students.Two  separate  courses  in neurophysiology  at Tehran University of Medical Sciences and Health services  and  Iran  University  of Medical Sciences and Health  Services  were  selected for the study. 310  students  were  registered  on these  courses.Half the topics studied were randomly selected for Research-Centered   Teaching  and  the  other  half for  customary  lecturing   Thus,  each  course, consisting   of   28   hours   of  teaching,   was  split between these two methods.   All the students participated  in  a written  exam  at  the end  of  the course  and  filled  out  a  questionnaire   regarding which topic was more precisely remembered, the reasons  behind  that  and  also  their  motives  for more regular class attendance.81% of the students stated that the topics taught through the Research-Centered Method  were the ones they remembered best    This was proved in the analysis of the exam results (P
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    National Educational Stratification Of Dental Schools In Iran
    (Brieflands, 2005-06-30) Aeen Mohammadi; R Mojtahedzadeh; H Hosseini Toodashki
    Background and purpose: After two decades of expansion  of universities of medical  sciences  and increasing  the number  of medical  sciences  students  as one of the most attainable  solutions  for the problem of substandard status of Iranian community health, recently, quality-based policies in medical education have taken priority over most of the national health plans. The pupose of this study was to determine differences of Iranian dental schools in the field of education by stratifying their educational services.Methods: To measure the educational performance that could be utilized to rate the schools nationwide, a benchmarking tool, consisting of about 60 indicators, was devised. Each school was asked to introduce a representative who would complete a questionnaire, which was designed to collect schools' information. In the next step, all the divisions were visited by one of the project :S  members and the school's representative  to revise and approve the data. Then, data retrieval was performed and verified at the project's office. Finally, special computer software was exploited to perform the final analysis.Results: There were 18 public and private dental schools nationwide, which were stratified based on their individual scores. Furthermore, all schools were also ranked in each indicator.Conclusion: This study as one of the phases of Strategy Compilation for Educational Missions of the National System of Medical Education, defines the educational strengths and weaknesses  of Iranian dental schools that could be used as a measure for authorities to determine the developmental limits and current  stance of these schools; and optimize their budget and facilities.
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    How Graduates from Medicine Choose their Residency Program in Iran?
    (Brieflands, 2005-09-30) Ramin Mehrdad; M Nikzad; SH Alavi; AH Gorji
    Back ground and purpose: Continuing education is one of priorities of newly graduates from medicine and selection of a proper residency program is a major problem for most of them. This study examined various motives and reasons for inclination of graduates from medicine tocontinue education in a special residency program and become specialized.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. A questionnaire was developed after holding a focus group. Validity and reliability of results using the questionnaire were assessed, Then the questionnaires were sent and received by free mail through universities. Chi-Suquare, One way ANOVA and Post Hoc test, Bonferroni type, was used to study relationshipsBetween different variables.Results: 1052 residents participated in the study. Response rate was 27%. The first and second most important information sources used to choose a residency program were experts and related books (like ketab-e-sabz) respectively. 303(28.8%) Of participants a greed that they need information a bout future of their specialties of choice. The most important factors influencing selection of a program, ordered according to their importance, were tangibility of the impacts of patients treatment, types ofdiseases, variety in a program, previous academic extensive job opportunities.Conclusion: This study showed there are various reasons to select a residency program. However information and awareness of resident a bout the program they chosed was not sufficient. Therefore informing residents before choosing programs seems to be necessary.
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    Study of the Status of Physicians-Patient Communication among Medical Interns
    (Brieflands, 2006-01-31) Sa’eedeh Farajzadeh; E Noohi; H Mortazavi
    Background and purpose: Proper communication between a physician and a patient is the key to diagnosis and management of diseases.Communication skills are essential for gathering information from patients, enhancing patients trust on physicians, relaxing them and managing them .The main purpose of this study was to determine the states of communication skills of medical interns to communicate with patients.Method: In this cross sectional study, communication skills of 72 medical interns of Kerman Medical University was assessed based on a checklist completed with direct observation and a questionnaire completed through interview with patients.The checklist included two parts: the first part for individual characteristics and the second part for 24 specifications related to initiation of an interview, conducting an interview and completion of aninterview.Another questionnaire with a similar structure was developed to gather patients’ comments about communication of medical interns with them.Results: Communication skills of medical interns were weak in 29.3%, moderate in 85.4% and good in 15.9% of interns. An agreement between observed communication skills and patients’ survey results about greeting, asking patients’ names and calling them by their names, acceptable physicians’ appearance, listening to patients’ words, friendly doctor- patient encounter, empathizing with patients (0.37, 0.26, 0.22.0.41and 0.44 respectively) was seen. Results of individual variables show that relationship between age of patient and his or her opinion about communication was significant.Based on patient’s survey, the communication score given to the student increases with age of the patient.Conclusion: The study shows deficits in doctor-patient communication of medical interns in history taking. Given the importance of communication skills, the necessity to teach them in clinical skill centers before real contact with patients is obvious.
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    A New Approach to Information Technology Instruction for Medical Students
    (Brieflands, 2006-05-31) Abbas Foroutan; S.H Yazdani; S Noori
    Background and purpose: Active learning, combined with computer-assisted instruction, can enhance medical students’ performance and learning. This article is an attempt to introduce a new web-based approach to information technology instruction for medical students.Methods: Eight topics were selected to be instructed in Web-based workshops. PHPBB Forum was used for web-based collaborative learning. One oral lecture session was held to make the students familiar with the Forum and their duties. For each topic, groups of 6-9 students had to search the Web, based on a search strategy to find answers for the questions. The students could discuss theirfindings in their group Forum under the supervision of a tutor.Results: Direct (face-to-face) and indirect (Web-based) interactions among students was considerably increased. The students showed greater interest in participating in class activities. Students’ attitude toward Web-based learning was improved.Conclusion: Adding collaborative learning to computer-assisted instruction, along with constant supervision by the tutor, can enhance students’ learning, since they can have free discussion and express their opinions.
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    Evaluation of Data Recording at Teaching Hospitals
    (Brieflands, 2006-05-31) Hasan Karbasi; M Ziai; M Hosaini
    Background and purpose: Medical records of patients have an undeniable role on education, research and evaluation of health care delivery, and also could be used as reliable documents of past in casesof patients’ legal complains. This study was done to evaluate medical data recording at teaching hospital of Birjand University of Medical Sciences in 2004.Methods: In this descriptive-analytic study, 527 patients’ records of patients who had been discharged from general wards of the hospitals after 24 hours of hospitalization were randomly selected. 18 standard titles of records include in each patient’s record were evaluated using checklists. Data were analyzed using frequency distribution tables, independent t-test and Chi-square test.Results: Items on records’ titles were completed in a range of 0-100%. Titles of neonates and nursing care with 96% completeness were the most completed ones~ Titles of recovery, pre-delivery care, medical history, summary, and progress notes with 50% to 74% completeness were categorized as moderately completed titles; and titles of vital signs, pre-operation care and operation report were weak. Records of the infectious diseases ward were the most completed records (68%) and the least completed were from ophthmology ward (35.8%). There were significant differences between the hospitals and between different wards.Conclusion: Results of this study show the need for further education on record writing, taking medical history, and order writing and more importantly the need for a system of continuous monitoringof the records.
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    A Survey of the Zahedan Medical School Students’ View of the Research Workshop and its Effects on their Final Thesis
    (Brieflands, 2006-05-31) Masood Roudbari
    Background and purpose: The research workshops (RW) for the medical students have been performed at Zahedan University of Medical Sciences (ZUMS) since about ten years ago. The aim of the RW is teaching the research rules to the medical students to be used in their future researches, especially in their final thesis project.This study is planned to investigate the effect of the research RWs on the students’ final project.Methods: This descriptive research was performed in 2005 to 2006 at ZUMS. The target population was the medical students who passed the research RW and registered their final thesis project. The research sample was 155 and the data were collected using a questionnaire. For data analyzing, the descriptive statistics and nonparametric methods were applied in SPSS software.Results:The results show that 24.8% of the students believed that the effect of the RW on their projects was poor or very poor. Over 28% believed that the effect was moderate and 46.4% believed that theeffect is high or very high. Also, 86.5% of the students believed that the RW is essential for them.On the other hand, the students stated that the effects of the different sections of the RW were not the same. The section of introduction, aim and hypothesis are the most effective sections which are more applicable in their research project, while the sections of the sample size, sampling techniques and the research timetable are the least effective sections of the research RW. Also, 50.3% of the students believed that the best time for the RW is in externship period and 39.4% said that the best time is in internship period. Furthermore, 45.2% believed that the full time 3 or 4 day RW is not suitable and they suggested a minimum of a 7 day part time RW to learn better. The students also believed that thepractical parts of the RW are the most effective parts. The most important problem during the projects as stated by the students are determining the sample size, sampling techniques, writing the references and plotting the tables and graphs.Conclusion: It seems that the RW programs need to be revised and the part time RWs should be replaced. The period of the different parts of the RWs should be changed according to their importance and effects on the students’ final projects. If the RWs are less effective due to its time, periods, lecturers or syllabus, it needs to be reformed; otherwise the RWs will need to be stopped.
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    The Comparison between Teacher Centered and Student Centered Educational Methods
    (Brieflands, 2006-05-31) M Anvar; S Khademi; MH Meshkibaf; Z Fereidouni; A Ebrahimi
    Background and Purpose: Various approaches to learning are suggested & practiced. The traditional medical education were more teacher centered oriented . In this method the students’ involvement in the process of learning is not remarkable, but the new approach to medical education supports the students involvement. This study evaluated the various method of lecturing considering students involvements.Methods: One hundred two first year medical and nursing students involved in this study and their opinion about these two methods of learning were obtained by filling of a questionnaire. The subject of the lectures was “general psychology” which was carried out 50% by the students and 50% by the teacher. The statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS program.Results: Considering students opinion in student-centered method the various aspect of learning such as mutual understanding, use of textbooks and references were significantly increased , whereasother aspects of learning such as self esteem, study time, innovation, and study attitude though were improved, but were not significant as compared with teacher centered method. In teacher-centeredmethod the understanding of the subjects was significantly increased .Other aspects of learning such as motivation and concentration were improved but not significantly as compared with studentcentered method.Conclusion: As the result showed student centered method was favored in several aspects of learning while in teacher centered method only understanding of the subject was better . Careful choice of teaching method to provide a comprehensive learning experience should take into account these differences.
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    The Comparison between Teacher Centered and Student Centered Educational Methods
    (Brieflands, 2006-05-31) M Anvar; S Khademi; MH Meshkibaf; Z Fereidouni; A Ebrahimi
    Background and Purpose: Various approaches to learning are suggested & practiced. The traditional medical education were more teacher centered oriented . In this method the students’ involvement in the process of learning is not remarkable, but the new approach to medical education supports the students involvement. This study evaluated the various method of lecturing considering students involvements.Methods: One hundred two first year medical and nursing students involved in this study and their opinion about these two methods of learning were obtained by filling of a questionnaire. The subject of the lectures was “general psychology” which was carried out 50% by the students and 50% by the teacher. The statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS program.Results: Considering students opinion in student-centered method the various aspect of learning such as mutual understanding, use of textbooks and references were significantly increased , whereasother aspects of learning such as self esteem, study time, innovation, and study attitude though were improved, but were not significant as compared with teacher centered method. In teacher-centeredmethod the understanding of the subjects was significantly increased .Other aspects of learning such as motivation and concentration were improved but not significantly as compared with studentcentered method.Conclusion: As the result showed student centered method was favored in several aspects of learning while in teacher centered method only understanding of the subject was better . Careful choice of teaching method to provide a comprehensive learning experience should take into account these differences.
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    The Comparison between Teacher Centered and Student Centered Educational Methods
    (Brieflands, 2006-05-31) M Anvar; S Khademi; MH Meshkibaf; Z Fereidouni; A Ebrahimi
    Background and Purpose: Various approaches to learning are suggested & practiced. The traditional medical education were more teacher centered oriented . In this method the students’ involvement in the process of learning is not remarkable, but the new approach to medical education supports the students involvement. This study evaluated the various method of lecturing considering students involvements.Methods: One hundred two first year medical and nursing students involved in this study and their opinion about these two methods of learning were obtained by filling of a questionnaire. The subject of the lectures was “general psychology” which was carried out 50% by the students and 50% by the teacher. The statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS program.Results: Considering students opinion in student-centered method the various aspect of learning such as mutual understanding, use of textbooks and references were significantly increased , whereasother aspects of learning such as self esteem, study time, innovation, and study attitude though were improved, but were not significant as compared with teacher centered method. In teacher-centeredmethod the understanding of the subjects was significantly increased .Other aspects of learning such as motivation and concentration were improved but not significantly as compared with studentcentered method.Conclusion: As the result showed student centered method was favored in several aspects of learning while in teacher centered method only understanding of the subject was better . Careful choice of teaching method to provide a comprehensive learning experience should take into account these differences.
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    The Correlation between Medical Students’ Scores in their Physiopathology and Clinical Courses in Kerman University of Medical Sciences
    (Brieflands, 2006-11-30) AA Haghdoost; Aryan Esmaeili
    Background and Purpose: The relation of comprehensive exams scores and other measures of students’performance has been of great importance. This study is an attempt to assess the associations between medical students’ scores in physiopathology and clinical courses and to compare thesescores with their scores in the comprehensive exams.Methods: Medical students’ scores in their courses and also in their comprehensive exam in six consecutive years were collected. Using Pearson correlation coefficient and linear regression, we assessed the associations between students’ scores and their personal characteristics, and theconsistency between theoretical and practical courses. In addition, we computed difficulty and discrimination indices of students’ scores in their courses by comparing these scores with comprehensive clinical exam (CPE).Results: A total of 481 students’ score were included. Females and younger students score higher.CPE were predicted by students’ scores and their characteristics rather accurately with the adjusted R2 of 0.59. Students’ scores in pathology and in thesis had the highest and lowest discrimination indices, while the difficulties of these two courses were in reverse order. The strongest association was observed between theoretical and practical scores in internal medicine while the associations between theoretical and practical scores in the other courses were not strong although all of themwere statistically significant.Conclusions: Using this approach to explore the students’ score, might highlight the weak points of current educational system. For example we found that the students’ score in thesis had the lowest association; although students obtained very high score in this course. Using our method with scoresof students in other medical schools may provide better understanding of medical students performance’s relation with countrywide comprehensive exam.
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    Comparing Efficacy of Implementing Two Teaching Methods Contract Learning and Traditional Instruction on Clinical Skills of Nursing Students in Psychiatric Wards of Hospitals of Tehran
    (Brieflands, 2007-03-31) Jamileh Mohtashami; F Noughani
    Background and purpose: A learning contract is defined as a written agreement between teacher and student which makes explicit what a learner will do to achieve specified learning outcomes.Learning contracts have been used as a teaching and learning strategy for both undergraduate and graduate nursing students in many countries.Methods : This research is a quasi-experimental study that compares effect of two different teaching methods , Contract learning and traditional on clinical skills for a group of nursing students who were in fourth year of study in a pre-registration bachelor of nursing degree program in Tehran . A learning contract was implemented as a learning tool in the students clinical placement in psychiatric nursing .Data were connected from questionnaires , interviews and clinical evaluation papers with students .Results : The results showed that students agreed that there was an increase in students autonomy and motivation in learning with the use of learning contract . It also increased the sharing between students and clinical instructors.Conclusion : According to the findings of this study , contract learning is considered beneficial to students learning and has the potential to be used in clinical learning .
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    What are the Weights of Responsibilities of Faculty Members in Medical Universities?
    (Brieflands, 2007-09-30) A Haghdoost; Afshin Sarafinejad; H Safizadeh
    Background and purpose:The tasks of faculty members and their weights particularly in integrated system of Iran are not well defined.Methods:To address this issue, in a comprehensive project, we explored all rules, regulations and officialdocuments in national level, collected the opinion of experts around the country using in-depthinterview and defined the weights of main tasks in a group discussion. This paper presentsall findings of the group meeting in January 2006, where every member of the managerial team of Kerman University of Medical Sciences and 37 faculty members participated.Results:The computed weights of the three main tasks for non-clinical members were: 0.336 for education,0.258 research , and 0.146 for self-development. These weights for clinical members were: 0.295 for education, 0.219 for providing services, and 0.175 for research. The main activity in education and research were teaching students and writing papers respectively.Conclusion: Comparing these weights with the current situation in most of Iranian universities of medical sciences shows that attention to education, research and self-development is less than these weights; however, providing services, particularly clinical services is much more than expected.
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    Sources of Information in General Physicians
    (Brieflands, 2007-09-30) Ameneh Barikani; M Khoshravesh
    Background and purpose: The rapidly increasing availability of information has coincided with fundamental change in the structure and delivery of care. This study is an attempt to determine sources of information which general physicians use.Methods: with a cross-sectional study a 150 general physicians were selected by simple random sampling.A 20-item questionnaire was designed and distributed to collect data regarding the sources of information physicians used and the time they spent for getting relevant data. Analysis was descriptive.The SPSS(version 12) software was used for data analysis.Results: Most participants (49/3%) were 25-34 years and 42/7% of them worked less than 5 years. Of all participants, 44/7% studied less than 1 hour in day and 70.3% of them studied less than 2 paper in a month. The subjects most frequently deemed as most needed by physicians in an descending order were treatment (61.9%), diagnosis (55.6%), side effects (30.3%), prevention (29.2%). The most frequently used sources were textbooks (67/6%) and 36/2% of physicians said that CME seminarswas not effective.Conclusion: It seems that there is a serious need to encourage physician spend more time on more reliable sources of information.
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    Survey of Patients’ Complaints against Physicians in a Five Year Period in Fars Province: Implication for Medical Education
    (Brieflands, 2008-03-31) Lila Bazrafkan; N Shokrpour; SZ Tabeie
    Background purpose: One of the prominent sources of needs assessment is a survey of complaints and medical errors. This study aimed at determining the number and reasons of patients’ complaints against physicians during five years in Fars province, Iran.Methods: After required correspondence and coordination with the head of Fars Medical Council, a questionnaire was prepared. As suggested by the head of medical council and also due to the secrecy of the data, two employees of medical council cooperated in collecting the data. Then the collected data were categorized and analyzed, using SPSS statistical package.Result: The results revealed that 368 complaints have been made during five years against public hospitals, private hospitals, private offices and clinics, respectively. Most of these complaints have been made against dentists, gynecologists, ophthalmologists, orthopedists and general surgeons respectively. Based on the content analysis of the complaints, 33 cases (9% ) have been related to death, 56 cases (15%) disability and 50% misunderstanding and lack of good relationship. In 95 cases (26%), the physicians have been faulty from which 59 cases (16%) have been settled by arbitration. In 177cases (48%), physicians have not been faulty. Some cases have been closed due to the passage of time and request for stopping the claims.Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that the majority of the complaints have been made due to a lack of proper relationship between physicians and patients, mostly related to behavioral problems. Considering the fact that one’s behavior reveals his/her attitude, there is a severe deficiency in medical education with regard to affective and attitudes domain of objectives. To solve this problem, the experts, specialists and ethics experts’ contribution is called for so that by establishing a medical curriculum committee, this aspect of medical education can be integrated in the program.
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    Recall of general and medical vocabulary and text structure knowledge: An experimental study of English for Medical Purposes
    (Brieflands, 2008-09-30) S Zarein-Dolab
    Background and purpose: A 3-unit course is dedicated to general language in medical universities and the vocabulary and text structure of the courses have usually no relation to medical language. We examine whether teaching general language will be as effective as medical language as assessed through recall of general and medical vocabulary and text structure knowledge.Methods: an experimental study was designed, in that, the third year students who had participated in the 3-unit general language classes in the first year of their General Practitioner (GP) program were selected and sat for a 60 MCQ tests. The 60 MCQ tests consisted of 30 questions of general language, 25 vocabulary and 5 comprehension questions and also 30 questions of medical language, 25 technical and semi-technical vocabulary and 5 comprehension questions. In all, 145 medical students attended the exam which took 40 minutes to accomplish.Results: The results of the study indicated that memory retention was significantly lower in general language than medical language. The technical and semi-technical vocabulary items were significantly better recalled and the medical text was significantly better understood by the participants.Conclusion: A 3-unit course in general language may be a futile effort since the students will not be exposed to the same vocabulary and text structure knowledge in later years of their GP program. It is recommended that the focus of all the university English courses be on the medical language.
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    Evaluation of correct diagnosis of referral patients to skin clinic by family physicians: A needs assessment for UME,CME
    (Brieflands, 2008-09-30) A Ramezanpour; Javad Golchaiis; R Fallah
    Background and purpose: It has been demonstrated that the level of welfare and improvement of nations is evaluated by the progress and achievement of their health service networks. The specialization of therapeutic approaches is one of the practical and effective ways to accomplish this goal. The health system savants believe that the family physician guideline is the redeemer of health system section. This study is aimed, to evaluate the accuracy of diagnosis of the dermatologic disease of referred patients by family physician in Zanjan Valiasr hospital in year 2008.Methods: This descriptive and cross-sectional study was done on 173 cases of referred patients from village family physician to dermatologic clinic. After correct diagnosis by dermatologist data including age, sex, family physician diagnosis and dermatologist diagnosis were recorded on data forms and then analyzed by Chi-square test.Results: From 173 referred patients, 76 cases (43.9%) were male, 49 cases (28.3%) were under 15 years old, 73 cases (42.2%) were between 15-30 years old, and rest were more than 30 years old. 28 cases (16.1%) have been referred with correct diagnosis.Conclusion: The level of accurate diagnosis by family physicians was law, which can be due to non-familiarity with common local skin disease and lack of enough instruction and education before starting the family physician project. We recommended that before starting this project, specialist workshop be prepared for family physicians.
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    The Logbook Effect on Clinical Learning of Interns in Internal Ward Rotation in Shiraz University of Medical Sciences
    (Brieflands, 2008-09-30) Mahboobeh Saber; M Saberi Firouzi; F Azizi
    Background and purpose: The learning experiences of medical students happen in diverse settings.Logbook is a long known tool to manage and guide these experiences but the studies had varying results this study is an attempt to examine the educational benefits of logbooks .Methods: In this quasi-experimental study the externs were divided into to equivalent groups as intervention and control group. For the controls the routine program was delivered while logbook was used in addition to routine learning activities for intervention group. The students was examined with an OSCE and MCQ exam at completion of rotation. The results were compared.Results: Of 53 subjects, 28 were assigned in control groups and 25 were placed in intervention groups. The intervention groups’ performance on OSCE was not significantly different from control group (14.84±1.87 vs 13.93.2.15, P > 0.05). The intervention groups performance on 5 stations of OSCE assessing clinical skills compared with the control groups performance on these stations showed a significant difference of 6.4 out of 20 (P < 0.0001) while the intervention groups performance on 7 stations assessing factual knowledge compared with the control groups performance on these stations showed no significant difference (0.2, P > 0.05).Conclusion: The introduction of logbook was associated with increased clinical skills while no improvement of factual knowledge was observed.
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    Library resources and services use for study by students of medical Sciences in Semnan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services, 2006-7
    (Brieflands, 2009-03-31) Saeed Hajiaghajani; M Saberian; R Ghorbani
    Background and purpose: Today with growth of information, information sources are also growing in number and diversity. The users should welcome these changes and learn the skills which help with optional use of information resources and prevents confusion. This study is an attempt to evaluate student use of information resources and library services in Semnan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services.Methods: In this survey a questionnaire was used to collect the date. The questionnaire included question on demographic data such as the degree program of study, sex, living place and 15 items on study habits and library use. The last year students of 13 disciplines leading to Associate degree, Bachelors degree, and Professional doctoral degree (medicine) were included in this study. The association of variables was tested with chi-square and fisher exact tests and to examine the correlation of variables Spearman correlation coefficient was used. A P value of less than 0.05 was considered significantResults: In this study 215 last year students participated. Of all participants 70.3% were female; 43.3% study for an associate degree, 47.4% studies for Bachelor’s degree and 9.3% studied for doctoral degree; 92.6% lived in dormitories. There is a significant association between use of library sources and the study program degree (r=0.191, P=0.005) and living place (P=0.026) Original English books are used scarcely. Use of English sources are associated with the degree the students studied for (r=0.137, P=0.045) and sex; using specialty journal is associated with program degree (r=0.160, P=0.013).Most students of doctoral degree (40%), bachelors degree (42.2%), and associate degree (32.3%) did not use library as an educational setting. Male students (28.2%) and students living in dormitories (24.6%) “always” used library as main study place.Conclusions: Most of our students always or often preferred transcripts of instructors’ lecture over other resources of library which might be due to the lack of information handling skills. Training students on the potentials of library in helping them with their education can help in this regard.
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    Evaluation of the Effects of Direct Observation of Procedural Skills (DOPS) on Clinical Externship Students’ Learning Level in Obstetrics Ward of Kurdistan University of Medical Sciences
    (Brieflands, 2009-03-31) SH Shahgheibi; Arash Poolad; M BahramRezaie; F Farhadifar; R Khatibi
    Background and purpose: Importance of clinical skills learning in medicine cannot be overemphasized but it seems that due attention is not paid to this issue. This study is an attempt to examine the effectiveness of direct observation of procedural skills (DOPS) in this regard.Methods: In this study all externs passing the obstetrics ward rotation in 2005 and 2006for the first time participated. In this study, at first, 7 fundamental skills were selected and checklists for skill evaluation was prepared. Student’s skills was evaluated before and after traditional education(control group) and before and after intervention which added DOPS. Examiners were requested to also provde a global judement of students performance. The data was analysed with paired T- test, T- test by SPSS software.Results: In this study 73 students participated of whom 42 students (57.5%) were in control group, and 31(42.5%) were in intervention group. In control group 47.6% and in interventional group 58.1% were male. Comparing students’ scores for each skill, the intervention group had significantly improved more than control group (p=0.0001). Comparing the interventions means of students’ averages for all skills before and after intervention (49.49 vs 86.03, p