Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine

In Collaboration with Society of Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine (ISRAPM)


The Anesthesiology and Pain Medicine journal, official publication of ISRAPM since 2011, offers comprehensive insights into pain management research, education, and clinical practice. It features a broad spectrum of content, including research, reviews, and debates relevant to anesthesiologists, neurosurgeons, and pain specialists.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 1019
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    Compared the Effectiveness of Intraperitoneal Bupivacaine with Lung Recruitment Maneuver Versus Normal Saline with Lung Recruitment Maneuver in Reducing Shoulder Pain After Laparoscopic Surgery: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
    (Brieflands, 2024-06-30) Javad Shahinfar; Hossein Zeraati; Mahdiyeh Dartoomi; Hosnieh Raoufian
    Background: Postoperative shoulder pain is one of the most common complications following laparoscopic surgery. Various interventions have been proposed to control this pain. Objectives: The main objective of this comparative study was to determine the effects of intraperitoneal bupivacaine and normal saline infusion, in combination with lung recruitment maneuver (LRM), on shoulder pain following laparoscopic surgery. Methods: The present randomized controlled trial was conducted on 105 candidates for laparoscopic cholecystectomy referred to Imam Ali Hospital in Bojnurd, Iran, from November 2021 to June 2022. The patients were assigned to three groups using block randomization: BR (receiving 50 cc of 0.25% diluted intraperitoneal bupivacaine + LRM), NR (receiving 50 cc of intraperitoneal normal saline + LRM), and N (receiving 50 cc of intraperitoneal normal saline). Postoperative shoulder pain and surgical incision site pain were assessed using the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) at recovery intervals of 4, 12, 24, and 48 hours after surgery. Additionally, the prevalence of nausea and vomiting, the first time of need for sedation, and the incidence of sedation overdose in the first 24 hours after surgery were investigated. The data were analyzed using one-way analyzed by one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) with SPSS software at a significance level of 0.05. Results: The findings showed no significant differences in demographic variables between the three groups. The range and mean score of shoulder pain based on VAS was 0 - 1 (0.3) in the BR group, 0 - 2 (1.4) in the NR group, and 1 - 3 (2.1) in the N group at 4 hours after surgery. The mean score of shoulder pain intensity in the BR group was lower compared to the NR and N groups during recovery time intervals at 4, 12, and 24 hours after surgery. This difference between groups was significant. There was also a statistically significant difference in the mean score of surgical incision site pain intensity and the first time of need for sedation between the three groups. The occurrence of side effects was not significant between the groups. Itching, bradycardia, and hypotension were not observed in any of the groups. Conclusions: The findings of this study showed that bupivacaine, along with LRM, is a safe method effective in relieving postoperative shoulder pain. It prolonged the first time of need for sedation and significantly reduced the incidence of shoulder pain.
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    A Comparison of Analgesic Efficacy of Triamcinolone vs Magnesium Sulfate as Adjuvants in Caudal Block in Patients with Low Back Pain: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial
    (Brieflands, 2024-04-30) Payman Dadkhah; Masoud Hashemi; Mehrdad Taheri; Ali Alizadeh Ojoor; Milad Jaffari; Alireza Jaffari
    Background: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a common issue among older adults. Radicular pain syndromes are often managed with caudal epidural injections. Our study aimed to compare the effects of triamcinolone and magnesium sulfate, used as adjuvants to local anesthetics in caudal blocks, on pain levels and quality of life in patients with LBP. Methods: A total of 40 patients undergoing caudal block were randomized to two groups,received 10 mL caudal epidural injection of either injection 9 mL of ropivacaine 0.1% and 1 mL of triamcinolone; 40 mg (Group T, n = 20) or magnesium sulfate; 200 mg (group M, n = 20). Improvements in the pain score measured with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) and functional ability measured with the Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) were the primary and secondary outcome measures, respectively. Before, one month and three months after the caudl block, the VAS and ODI scores were evaluated. Results: The VAS and ODI scores did not exhibit a significant difference between the 2 groups at all post-injection time points, except for the VAS score at 3 months, which showed a statistically lower value in group M compared to group T (P = 0.046). However, when comparing within the same group, both groups showed significantly improved VAS and ODI scores at all post-injection time points compared to the pre-injection scores (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: The addition of magnesium or triamcinolone to a local anesthetic in caudal epidural injections does not result in any discernible difference. However, this combination may lead to improvements in pain levels and quality of life, and these improvements can be sustained for up to 3 months.
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    Transient Neuronal Injury Followed by Intravascular Injection During an Ultrasound Guided Stellate Ganglion Block
    (Brieflands, 2013-01-01) Hariharan Shankar; Swetha Simhan
    Ultrasound guidance for pain interventions is becoming increasing recognized as a useful imaging tool. One of the common interventions where it is gaining wider acceptance is during the performance of a stellate ganglion block. The following is a unique report where intravascular and neuronal injury occurred during the performance of an ultrasound guided stellate ganglion block followed by dysphagia. 41 year old male, with a diagnosis of complex regional pain syndrome, was referred to our clinic for further management. He underwent a diagnostic ultrasound guided stellate ganglion block after having tried conservative therapies. The stellate ganglion block provided him with complete pain relief for over five weeks. During a subsequent therapeutic stellate ganglion block, performed by an experienced pain medicine fellow with more than 50 ultrasound guided proceduresclinician, the patient developed a transient injury to the brachial plexus upon needle entry. Subsequent redirection and injection of an ml of injectate resulted in an intravascular injection producing tinnitus. After the tinnitus decreased, he underwent another stellate block using an out of plane approach without any further complications. Two days later, he reported chest and throat discomfort which resolved over the next few days possibly due to a retropharyngeal hematoma. He declined further interventions and was subsequently managed with 3 tablets of oxycodone a day. This report highlights the importance of vigilance and meticulous planning during the performance of ultrasound guided pain interventions.
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    Management of Critically Ill Patients with COVID-19: What We Learned and What We Do
    (Brieflands, 2020-06-10) Ata Mahmoodpoor; Kamran Shadvar; Ali Akbar Ghamari; Mojtaba Mohammadzadeh Lameh; Roghayeh Asghari Ardebili; Masood Hamidi; Hassan Soleimanpour
    There are many unknown questions and puzzle pieces that should describe the clinical course of COVID-19 and its complications, especially ARDS. We provide the initial immediate surge response to allow every patient in need of an ICU bed to receive one. Till our knowledge is improved, the most important intervention in the treatment of critically ill patients with COVID-19 seems to be the level of standard care and appropriate and early diagnosis and treatment. It seems that each center should have its protocol on the management of critically ill COVID-19 patients regarding prevention, diagnosis, and treatment. This treatment should now be performed regardless of the reason which lies behind the pathophysiology of this disease, which is yet unknown. In this report, we share our experience in the management of critically ill COVID-19 patients during the 2 months in our intensive care unit.
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    Comparison of the Effect of Two Different Doses of Labetalol to Induce Controlled Hypotension on Hemodynamic Changes During Spinal Fusion Surgery
    (Brieflands, 2021-10-31) Zahra Rahimi; Mehrdad Masoudifar; Behzad Nazemroaya; Haidar Almadi
    Background: Spinal fusion surgery is often associated with heavy bleeding. Labetalol is one of the most effective drugs used to control bleeding in surgery. Objectives: Here, we measured the effect of two therapeutic doses of labetalol on the amount of bleeding. Methods: This is a randomized clinical trial that was performed in 2020-2021 in Al-Zahra hospital in Isfahan, Iran, on patients that were candidates for posterior spinal fusion surgery under general anesthesia. A total number of 64 patients were entered and randomized into two groups, one receiving labetalol at the dose of 2 mg/min and another group at 4 mg/min during surgery. The amount of bleeding in patients, heart rate, blood pressure, blood oxygen saturation, hypotension or bradycardia, and the mean length of stay in the recovery room were measured and compared between the groups. Results: Extubation time (14 ± 4) and recovery time (76 ± 17) were significantly lower in patients that received labetalol (2 mg/min) compared to another group (21 ± 7 for intubation time and 116 ± 32 for recovery time (P < 0.001 for both items). Patients that received labetalol (4 mg/min) had significantly lower amounts of hemorrhage compared to other group (P = 0.001), and the surgeon's satisfaction was significantly higher in the second group (P = 0.001). The frequency of hypotension and bradycardia during the surgery were significantly higher among patients that received labetalol at the dose of 4 mg/min (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). The patients in the group labetalol at 4 mg/min had also significantly lower systolic and diastolic blood pressure and lower mean arterial pressure (MAP) compared to the other group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Administration of labetalol at the dose of 4 mg/min had significantly desirable effects on hemodynamics that resulted in reduced bleeding volume and blood pressures compared to labetalol at the dose of 2 mg/min.
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    Response to Letter to Editor by Dr. Aminnejad et al.
    (Brieflands, 2019-12-31) Reyhaneh Shahrokhirad; Soudabeh Haddadi; Malek Moien Ansar
    This article does not have an abstract.
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    The Role of Dexmedetomidine in Airway Management for Tracheostomy in Pediatric Patient with Obstructed Airway Due to Diphtheria: A Case Report
    (Brieflands, 2023-08-31) Andy Omega; Faradila Ramadian; Putri Nurra Kusumawardhany Hakim
    Introduction: Diphtheria is an infectious disease caused by exotoxin-producing Corynebacterium diphteriae and was a leading cause of death in childhood during the prevaccine era. This toxin is usually localized in the upper respiratory tract and may cause fatal airway obstruction. Many have used orotracheal intubation to secure the airway in diphtheria cases. However, the efficacy of tracheostomy under sedation while maintaining spontaneous ventilation and analgesia using trans-tracheal and superficial cervical block remains to be elucidated. Case Presentation: A 6-year-old presented to the emergency room with respiratory distress and was diagnosed with diphtheria. A thick membrane in the oropharyngeal area and chest X-ray showed infiltrations indicative of pneumonia. The patient successfully underwent emergency tracheostomy under sedation using a combination of sevoflurane and dexmedetomidine to achieve prompt sedation and trans-tracheal injection and bilateral superficial cervical block as analgesia for the intra-tracheal and the incision. The patient’s condition deteriorated the next day, and the bronchoscopy showed that the carina and main bronchus were covered by a pseudomembrane, obstructing the airway below the tracheostomy. The patient eventually died two days after admission. Conclusions: Dexmedetomidine has minimal impact on ventilatory function and anti-sialagogue properties, while sevoflurane has minimal effect on respiratory depression. This case presentation showed that a combination of sevoflurane and dexmedetomidine with spontaneous assisted ventilation could be helpful in tracheostomy procedures in pediatric patients with airway obstruction due to diphtheria, along with the use of trans-tracheal and superficial cervical block as the analgesia. This report also indicates that being vigilant in rapidly-progressing and fatal pediatric diphtheria cases is vital.
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    Comparison Effect of Promethazine/Dexamethasone and Metoclopramide /Dexamethasone on Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting after Laparascopic Gastric Placation: A Randomized Clinical Trial
    (Brieflands, 2017-08-31) Mohammad Talebpour; Naser Ghiasnejad Omrani; Farsad Imani; Reza Shariat Moharari; Pejman Pourfakhr; Mohammad Reza Khajavi
    Background: Laparoscopic gastric plication (LGP) is a technique in the restrictive category of bariatric procedures that reduces the gastric volume and increases intragastric pressure. Nausea and vomiting are the most common complications after this procedure. The goal of this research is to compare the combined effect of promethazine/dexamethasone versus Metoclopramide/ dexamethasone on the prevention of nausea and vomiting after LGP. Methods: In recovery, the patients were divided into two groups, the Metoclopramide group which was given Metoclopramide 10 mg plus dexamethasone 4 mg/8 hours intravenous for 48 hours, and the promethazine group which was given promethazine 50 mg /12 hours, intramuscular for the first 24 hours and then promethazine 25 mg/12 hours for the next 24 hours plus dexamethasone 4 mg/8 hours intravenous for 48 hours. The frequency of nausea and vomiting, number of reflux episodes, frequency of epigastric fullness, and the duration of walking around q12 hours were recorded in the first 48 hours post-operation. Results: Eighty patients were enrolled into the study. Promethazine group were found to significantly reduce the incidence of PONV in the first 24 hours compared with the other group (41% vs. 97.5%), relative risk = 0.042 [95% CI = 0.006, 0.299]. The mean numbers of epigastric fullness and severity of epigastria pain were lower in the promethazine group (P = 0.01) and the total opioid requirement was also reduced in promethazine group (32.1 ± 2.6 VS .68.5 ± 4.6 mg). However, the patients in the promethazine group were more sedated, which caused the duration of walking q12 hours in this group to decrease. Conclusions: In morbidly obese patients undergoing laparoscopic gastric plication, promethazine/dexametasone was more effective than Metoclopramide/dexametasone in preventing and reducing the incidence of nausea, epigastric fullness, and reflux. That combination was also more effective than Metoclopramide in reducing the severity of epigastric pain.
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    Inhalation Anesthesia in a Patient With Xeroderma Pigmentosum: A Case Report
    (Brieflands, 2014-08-01) Mohammad Hajijafari; Mohammad Hossein Ziloochi; Mohammad Reza Fazel
    Introduction: Xeroderma Pigmentosum (XP) is a rare autosomal recessive disease, which is defined by extreme sensitivity to sunlight and UV radiation and characterized by skin lesions and neuromuscular abnormalities. It is caused by a molecular defect in nucleotide excision repair genes. It has been reported that volatile anesthetics may cause genotoxic side effects or aggravation of the neurological signs. We report an XP patient with difficult intubation whose airway was controlled with Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) and was anesthetized with sevoflurane. Case Presentation: A 23-year-old woman, who had been a known case of XP since her childhood, was admitted to our hospital for excision of face mass (SCC) and skin graft surgery. Her airway examination revealed some anatomical and pathological abnormalities, including limitation of mouth opening, jaw protrusion, head extension, and class 4 of mallampati, all predicting difficult intubation. We chose general anesthesia with inhalation induction, LMA insertion and maintenance with sevoflurane without muscle relaxant. The surgery was completed uneventfully and the patient left the hospital the day after the surgery without any new complaint. Conclusions: We suggest that for XP patients with compromised air-way, sevoflurane (not all volatiles) may be preferred.
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    Analgesic Effects of Paracetamol and Morphine After Elective Laparotomy Surgeries
    (Brieflands, 2014-05-01) Mahzad Alimian; Alireza Pournajafian; Alireza Kholdebarin; Mohammadreza Ghodraty; Faranak Rokhtabnak; Payman Yazdkhasti
    Background: Opioids have been traditionally used for postoperative pain control, but they have some unpleasant side effects such as respiratory depression or nausea. Some other analgesic drugs like non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are also being used for pain management due to their fewer side effects. Objectives: The aim of our study was to compare the analgesic effects of paracetamol, an intravenous non-opioid analgesic and morphine infusion after elective laparotomy surgeries. Patients and Methods: This randomized clinical study was performed on 157 ASA (American Society of Anesthesiology) I-II patients, who were scheduled for elective laparotomy. These patients were managed by general anesthesia with TIVA technique in both groups and 150 patients were analyzed. Paracetamol (4 g/24 hours) in group 1 and morphine (20 mg/24 hours) in group 2 were administered by infusion pump after surgery. Postoperative pain evaluation was performed by visual analog scale (VAS) during several hours postoperatively. Meperidine was administered for patients complaining of pain with VAS > 3 and repeated if essential. Total doses of infused analgesics, were recorded following the surgery and compared. Analysis was performed on the basis of VAS findings and meperidine consumption. Results: There were no differences in demographic data between two groups. Significant difference in pain score was found between the two groups, in the first eight hours following operation (P value = 0.00), but not after 12 hours (P = 0.14) .The total dose of rescue drug (meperidine) and number of doses injected showed a meaningful difference between the two groups (P = 0.00). Also nausea, vomiting and itching showed a significant difference between the two groups and patients in morphine group, experienced higher levels of them. Conclusions: Paracetamol is not enough for postoperative pain relief in the first eight hour postoperatively, but it can reduce postoperative opioid need and is efficient enough for pain management as morphine after the first eight hours following surgery.
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    Postoperative Management of Shivering: A Comparison of Pethidine vs. Ketamine
    (Brieflands, 2014-05-01) Mahmood Eydi; Samad EJ Golzari; Davood Aghamohammadi; Khosro Kolahdouzan; Saeid Safari; Zohreh Ostadi
    Background: One of the unpleasant side effects of general anesthesia is shivering in the process of recovery. It is an involuntary oscillatory mechanical movement that can be classified as clonic movements. These movements can affect one or several groups of skeletal muscles beginning from 5 to 30 minutes after the discontinuation of anesthesia. Objectives: We aimed to study ketamine’s effect on shivering after operation compared to pethidine as a way for treatment of postoperative shivering. Patients and Methods: In this study, 60 patients who underwent ENT surgery with general anesthesia and had shivering during recovery were randomly divided into two groups of 30 patients each receiving ketamine (0.2 mg/kg IV) and pethidine (0.5 mg/kg). Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the shivering intensity in both groups. Only regarding the shivering in the first minute after entering the recovery room, there was an obvious difference between ketamine and pethidine groups which was again not statistically significant (P = 0.07). Conclusions: The results of this study showed that ketamine and pethidine are both equally effective in the reduction of postoperative shivering.
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    The Effect of Pulsed Radiofrequency on Radicular Pain in Lumbal Herniated Nucleus Pulposus: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
    (Brieflands, 2021-04-30) Anita Marliana; Ismail Setyopranoto; Indarwati Setyaningsih; Sholahuddin Rhatomy
    Context: Radiofrequency therapy is a medical procedure mainly used to reduce pain with a low complication rate (less than 1%), ease of application, and low cost. This review’s objective was to (1) evaluate the pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) effectiveness in treating radicular pain and (2) assess the PRF procedure’s safety in managing radicular pain in lumbar herniated nucleus pulposus (HNP). Methods: A systematic review and meta-analysis. A tertiary care center and an academic medical center. Six full articles with the following features were selected for this review: (1) Articles published in English; (2) studies on the PRF effect on radicular pain in lumbar HNP; and (3) randomized control trials. Results: The studies showed that the PRF group had a reduction in pain scores at each evaluation. In four of the studies, the PRF group showed a more significant reduction in pain scores than the control, and in two of the studies, the reduction in pain scores was not significant in the PRF group compared to the control. An adverse effect was reported in one patient experiencing increased radicular pain after PRF. Lack of data required for statistical analysis, and lack use of a uniform duration for the PRF procedure by all the studies. Conclusions: PRF can be used as a promising clinical recommendation for pain management with minimally invasive radicular pain techniques due to lumbar HNP.
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    Effects of Dexmedetomidine Versus Ketorolac as Local Anesthetic Adjuvants on the Onset and Duration of Infraclavicular Brachial Plexus Block
    (Brieflands, 2014-08-01) Alireza Mirkheshti; Asadollah Saadatniaki; Alireza Salimi; Alireza Manafi Rasi; Elham Memary; Habiballah Yahyaei
    Background: Infraclavicular brachial plexus block is an appropriate approach for distal arm and forearm surgeries. Local anesthetic adjuvant agents are used to improve the quality of nerve blocks. Dexmedetomidine and ketorolac are two different types of adjuvants, which have been used in some studies. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of dexmedetomidine and ketorolac as local anesthetic adjuvants on the onset and duration of infraclavicular brachial plexus block under ultrasound guide technique. Patients and Methods: In a clinical trial study, 111 ASA class I and II patients who were candidates for elective distal arm and forearm surgeries under ultrasound guided infraclavicular brachial plexus block divided into three 37 patient groups. In dexmedetomidine group, 25 mL of lidocaine 1.5% plus 4 ml of normal saline and 100 mcg of dexmedetomidine was injected. Ketorolac group received 25 mL of Lidocaine 1.5% plus 5 mL of ketorolac, and placebo group received 25 mL of lidocaine 1.5% plus 5 mL of normal saline as local anesthetic solution. Sensory and motor onset blocks, duration of sensory and motor blocks and first time to analgesic request and hemodynamic parameters were all recorded. Results: There were no significant differences in sensory block onset between three groups (P = 0.177). Motor block onset was statistically less in dexmedetomidine compared to ketorolac and placebo groups (both Ps < 0.001). Sensory block duration in dexmedetomidine group was significantly longer than ketorolac and placebo groups (both Ps < 0.001). Motor block duration in dexmedetomidine group was significantly longer than ketorolac and placebo groups (both Ps < 0.001). Time to first analgesic request after the procedures was longer in ketorolac compared to dexmedetomidine and placebo groups (P = 0.016, P < 0.001 respectively), but it was longer in dexmedetomidine compared to placebo group (P = 0.003). The differences of diastolic blood pressure in-between the 5th to 140th minutes after local anesthetic injection among the 3 groups were statistically significant and dexmedetomidine group shows the most reduction in diastolic blood pressure (P < 0.001). Dexmedetomidine showed the lowest mean arterial pressure (P = 0.016) and heart rate in dexmedetomidine group was significantly lower than ketorolac and placebo groups (P = 0.043). Conclusions: Our study showed that dexmedetomidine had better effects on sensory and motor block duration and motor block onset in comparison with ketorolac, as lidocaine adjuvants in infraclavicular brachial plexus block were present in both protocols. However, the first time to analgesic request by ketorolac was longer than dexmedetomidine.
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    Adjuvant Drugs for Peripheral Nerve Blocks: The Role of NMDA Antagonists, Neostigmine, Epinephrine, and Sodium Bicarbonate
    (Brieflands, 2021-06-30) Amber N. Edinoff; Joseph S. Fitz-Gerald; Krisha Andrea A. Holland; Johnnie G. Reed; Sarah E. Murnane; Sarah G. Minter; Aaron J. Kaye; Elyse M. Cornett; Farnad Imani; Seyed-Hossein Khademi; Adam M. Kaye; Richard D. Urman; Alan D. Kaye
    The potential for misuse, overdose, and chronic use has led researchers to look for other methods to decrease opioid consumption in patients with acute and chronic pain states. The use of peripheral nerve blocks for surgery has gained increasing popularity as it minimizes peripheral pain signals from the nociceptors of local tissue sustaining trauma and inflammation from surgery. The individualization of peripheral nerve blocks using adjuvant drugs has the potential to improve patient outcomes and reduce chronic pain. The major limitations of peripheral nerve blocks are their limited duration of action and dose-dependent adverse effects. Adjuvant drugs for peripheral nerve blocks show increasing potential as a solution for postoperative and chronic pain with their synergistic effects to increase the duration of action and decrease the required dosage of local anesthetic. N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonists are a viable option for patients with opioid resistance and neuropathic pain due to their affinity to the neurotransmitter glutamate, which is released when patients experience a noxious stimulus. Neostigmine is a cholinesterase inhibitor that exerts its effect by competitively binding at the active site of acetylcholinesterase, which prevents the hydrolysis of acetylcholine and subsequently retaining acetylcholine at the nerve terminal. Epinephrine, also known as adrenaline, can potentially be used as an adjuvant to accelerate and prolong analgesic effects in digital nerve blocks. The theorized role of sodium bicarbonate in local anesthetic preparations is to increase the pH of the anesthetic. The resulting alkaline solution enables the anesthetic to more readily exist in its un-ionized form, which more efficiently crosses lipid membranes of peripheral nerves. However, more research is needed to show the efficacy of these adjuvants for nerve block prolongation as studies have been either mixed or have small sample sizes.
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    Comparison of Dexmedetomidine and Dexamethasone as Adjuvants to Ultra-Sound Guided Interscalene Block in Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgery: A Double-Blinded Randomized Placebo-Controlled Study
    (Brieflands, 2021-06-30) Roman Margulis; Jacquelyn Francis; Bryan Tischenkel; Adam Bromberg; Domenic Pedulla; Karina Grtisenko; Elyse M. Cornett; Alan D. Kaye; Farnad Imani; Farsad Imani; Naum Shaparin; Amaresh Vydyanathan
    Background: Interscalene block is one of the popular methods for decreasing pain and analgesic consumption after shoulder arthroscopic surgeries. Objectives: The objective is to compare the analgesic duration of effects of dexmedetomidine and dexamethasone as adjuvants to 0.5% ropivacaine in ultrasound-guided interscalene blocks for arthroscopic shoulder surgery in an ambulatory setting. Methods: In this randomized controlled trial, 117 adult patients candidate for ambulatory arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia were divided into three groups to perform an ultra-sound guided interscalene block before the surgery. The ropivacaine (control) group received ropivacaine 0.5% 20 mL, group Dexamethasone received ropivacaine 0.5% 20 mL plus 4mg dexamethasone, and group dexmedetomidine received ropivacaine 0.5% 20 mL plus 75 mcg of dexmedetomidine. Time to return of sensory function, of motor function, of first pain sensation, amount of opioid medication consumed at 24 hours and 48 hours post-operatively were measured. Results: The 24-hour median (25th- 75th percentile) opioid consumption in morphine equivalents was similar between groups 22.5 mg (10 - 30), 15 mg (0 - 30), and 15 mg (0 - 20.6) in the ropivacaine, dexmedetomidine, and dexamethasone groups, respectively (P = 0.130). The median (25th- 75th percentile) 48 hours post-operatively, the median opioid consumption in morphine equivalents was 40 mg (25 - 67.5) in the ropivacaine group, 30 mg (22 - 50.6) in the dexamethasone group, and 52.5 mg (30 - 75) in the dexmedetomidine group (P = 0.278). The median 24-hour pain scores were 6 (5 - 8) in the ropivacaine control group, 7 (5.5 - 8) in the dexamethasone group, and 7 (4 - 9) in the dexmedetomidine group (P = 0.573). Conclusions: There was no statistical difference in opioid consumption at 24 and 48 hours post-operatively when comparing dexmedetomidine, dexamethasone, and no adjuvant. However, intraoperative opioid use was significantly lower with dexmedetomidine compared to dexamethasone and plain 0.5% ropivacaine. The safe side effect profile of dexmedetomidine makes it a reasonable alternative as an adjuvant for peripheral nerve blockade when dexamethasone use may be contraindicated.
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    Invasive Airway "Intubation" in COVID-19 Patients; Statistics, Causes, and Recommendations: A Review Article
    (Brieflands, 2021-06-30) Mostafa Mohammadi; Alireza Khafaee Pour Khamseh; Hesam Aldin Varpaei
    Context: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can induce acute respiratory distress, which is characterized by tachypnea, hypoxia, and dyspnea. Intubation and mechanical ventilation are strategic treatments for COVID-19 distress or hypoxia. Methods: We searched PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases to identify relevant randomized control trials, observational studies, and case series published from April 1, 2021. Results: 24 studies were included in this review. Studies had been conducted in the USA, China, Spain, South Korea, Italy, Iran, and Brazil. Most patients had been intubated in the intensive care unit. Rapid sequence induction had been mostly used for intubation. ROX index can be utilized as the predictor of the necessity of intubation in COVID-19 patients. According to the studies, the rate of intubation was 5 to 88%. It was revealed that 1.4 - 44.5% of patients might be extubated. Yet obesity and age (elderly) are the only risk factors of delayed or difficult extubation. Conclusions: Acute respiratory distress in COVID-19 patients could require endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. Severe respiratory distress, loss of consciousness, and hypoxia had been the most important reasons for intubation. Also, increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin, d-dimer, and lipase in combination with hypoxia are correlated with intubation. Old age, diabetes mellitus, respiratory rate, increased level of CRP, bicarbonate level, and oxygen saturation are the most valuable predictors of the need for mechanical ventilation. ICU admission mortality following intubation was found to be 15 to 36%. Awake-prone positioning in comparison with high-flow nasal oxygen therapy did not reduce the risk of intubation and mechanical ventilation. There was no association between intubation timing and mortality of the infected patients. Noninvasive ventilation may have survival benefits.
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    Etiology Diagnosis and Management of Radial Nerve Entrapment
    (Brieflands, 2021-02-14) Neeraj Vij; Hayley Kiernan; Sam Miller-Gutierrez; Veena Agusala; Alan David Kaye; Farnad Imani; Behrooz Zaman; Giustino Varrassi; Omar Viswanath; Ivan Urits
    Context: The anatomy of the radial nerve is prone to entrapment, each with different symptomology. Compression of entrapment of the radial nerve can occur near the radiocapitellar joint, the spiral groove, the arcade of Frohse, the tendon of the extensor carpi radialis brevis (ECRB), and at the radial tunnel. Those who require repetitive motions are at increased risk of peripheral neuropathy syndromes, including repetitive pronation and supination, trauma, or systemic disease; however, t the influence of all risk factors is not well understood. Depending on the location of entrapment, radial nerve entrapment syndrome presents different symptoms. It may include both a motor component and a sensory component. The motor component includes a dropped arm, and the sensory component can include pain and paresthesia in the distribution of the radial nerve that resolves with rest and exacerbates by repetitive pronation and supination. Evidence Acquisition: Diagnostic evaluation for radial nerve entrapment, apart from clinical symptoms and physical exam, includes electromyography, nerve conduction studies, ultrasonography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Conservative management for radial nerve entrapment includes oral anti-inflammatory medications, activity modification, and splinting. Some recently performed studies mentioned promising minimally invasive techniques, including corticosteroid injections, peripheral nerve stimulation, and pulsed radiofrequency. Results: When minimally invasive techniques fail, open or endoscopic surgery can be performed to release the nerve Conclusions: Endoscopic surgery has the benefit of decreasing incision size and reducing time to functional recovery.
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    Adjuvant Drugs for Peripheral Nerve Blocks: The Role of Alpha-2 Agonists, Dexamethasone, Midazolam, and Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs
    (Brieflands, 2021-06-30) Amber N. Edinoff; Garrett M. Houk; Shilpa Patil; Harish Bangalore Siddaiah; Aaron J. Kaye; Priya Shelvan Iyengar; Elyse M. Cornett; Farnad Imani; Kamran Mahmoudi; Adam M. Kaye; Richard D. Urman; Alan D. Kaye
    Adjuvant drugs for peripheral nerve blocks are a promising solution to acute postoperative pain and the transition to chronic pain treatment. Peripheral nerve blocks (PNB) are used in the brachial plexus, lumbar plexus, femoral nerve, sciatic nerve, and many other anatomic locations for site-specific pain relief. However, the duration of action of a PNB is limited without an adjuvant drug. The use of non-opioid adjuvant drugs for single-shot peripheral nerve blocks (sPNB), such as alpha-2 agonists, dexamethasone, midazolam, and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, can extend the duration of local anesthetics and reduce the dose-dependent adverse effects of local anesthetics. Tramadol is a weak opioid that acts as a central analgesic. It can block voltage-dependent sodium and potassium channels, cause serotonin release, and inhibit norepinephrine reuptake and can also be used as an adjuvant in PNBs. However, tramadol’s effectiveness and safety as an adjuvant to local anesthetic for PNB are inconsistent. The effects of the adjuvants on neurotoxicity must be further evaluated with further studies to delineate the safety in their use in PNB. Further research needs to be done. However, the use of adjuvants in PNB can be a way to help control postoperative pain.