Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences

In Collaboration with Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences

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The Iranian Journal of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences (IJPBS) is an international quarterly peer-reviewed journal that is aimed at promoting communication among researchers worldwide and welcomes contributions from authors in all areas of psychiatry, psychology, and behavioral sciences. The journal publishes original contributions that have not previously been submitted for publication elsewhere. Manuscripts are received with the understanding that they are submitted solely to the IJPBS. Upon submission, they become the property of the Publisher, and the data in the manuscript have been reviewed by all authors, who agree to the analysis of the data and the conclusions reached in the manuscript. The Publisher reserves copyright and renewal on all published material and such material may not be reproduced without the written permission of the Publisher. Statements in articles are the responsibility of the authors.

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1) Double-Blind Peer Review System

2) Open Peer Review (since Aug 2019), Show List of All Published Reviewers' Comments

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Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 1006
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    Assessment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder Risk Factors Among Law Enforcement Staff: A Case-Control Study
    (Brieflands, 2024-07-17) Hossein Rostami; Omid R Gorjestani; Kobra Khalilpour; Zoha Ali; Mina Mahboudi; Hamidreza Ghadimi; Alireza Hasanzadeh; Sara Rostami
    Background: Given the inherent nature of their job, law enforcement staff regularly confront major stressors. Objectives: The prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among law enforcement staff is about twice that of the general population. We conducted this study to assess PTSD risk factors among this population. Methods: This prospective case-control study was conducted on patients with PTSD working as law enforcement staff as the case group, and their comrades with no PTSD as the control group. We used a questionnaire, including possible factors contributing to the development of PTSD, to gather the data. Binomial logistic regression was used to calculate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence intervals. Results: A total of 84 participants were included in the study. We found that some factors could be protective against PTSD, including marriage (OR: 0.270, 95% CI: 0.087 - 0.839, P-value: 0.024), having an academic degree (OR: 0.333, 95% CI: 0.114 - 0.978, P-value: 0.045), higher income (R2: 0.081; OR: 0.849, 95% CI: 0.721 - 1.000, P-value: 0.050), and receiving satisfactory family support (OR: 0.413, 95% CI: 0.171 - 0.999, P-value: 0.050). Furthermore, logistic regression showed that a positive psychological history (OR: 2.562, 95% CI: 1.025 - 6.406, P-value: 0.044), a positive familial psychological history (OR: 2.667, 95% CI: 1.099 - 6.406, P-value: 0.030), and encountering trauma (aside from the current trauma) after 18 years of age (OR: 2.643, 95% CI: 1.038 - 6.731, P-value: 0.041) are risk factors for PTSD. Conclusions: Our results showed that marriage, having an academic degree, higher income, and receiving satisfactory family support are protective factors. In addition, the risk factors for PTSD include a positive psychological history, a positive familial psychological history, and encountering trauma (aside from the current trauma) after 18 years of age. However, given our limitations, further studies should be conducted before drawing solid conclusions.
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    The Efficacy and Safety of Fluoxetine Delayed-Release 90 mg/Weekly in Psychiatry: An Evidence-Based Mini-Review
    (Brieflands, 2024-07-17) Niayesh Mohebbi; Mahtab Motamed; Mahsa Panahishokouh
    Context: Fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), is widely used in the treatment of various psychiatric disorders. While the standard therapeutic dose of fluoxetine is typically 20 - 60 mg per day, slow-release higher doses, such as 90 mg/weekly and more recently 180 mg/weekly, have been explored to assess their potential benefits in certain psychiatric conditions. This mini-review aims to evaluate the evidence regarding the effects, efficacy, and safety profile of fluoxetine at a dosage of 90 mg in psychiatry. Evidence Acquisition: A comprehensive literature search was conducted using electronic databases (PubMed and Embase) to identify relevant studies published until July 2023. Studies investigating the use of fluoxetine at a dosage of 90 mg/week in psychiatric conditions were included. The identified studies were critically appraised for their methodology and quality. Results: Limited research has specifically examined the effects of fluoxetine at a dosage of 90 mg/week in psychiatry. However, some studies have investigated this dosage form and provided insights into its potential efficacy in treating certain psychiatric conditions, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), premature ejaculation, and premenstrual dysphoric disorder. These studies have shown that compliance with weekly fluoxetine was better than with once-daily dosing. Conclusions: Once-weekly dosing may be effective in psychiatry, improving compliance and enhancing psychological well-being.
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    Self-Reported Methamphetamine Use Versus Biological Testing Among Treatment-Seeking Patients
    (Brieflands, 2024-07-17) Jaleh Gholami; Maryam Ardeshir; Yasna Rostam-Abadi; Shahab Baheshmat; Behrang Shadloo; Afarin Rahimi-Movaghar
    Background: The validity of self-reported methamphetamine use among treatment-seeking patients has been reported as inconsistent and therefore inconclusive. Objectives: To evaluate the validity of self-reported methamphetamine use versus urinalysis in patients with methamphetamine use disorder at a drug treatment center. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled 71 individuals with methamphetamine use disorder who were referred to the Iranian National Center for Addiction Studies (INCAS) clinic. Self-reported methamphetamine use in the last 72 hours was compared to urinalysis, conducted using the immunoassay technique. Sensitivity, negative predictive value (NPV), Cohen's kappa statistics, percent agreement, and positive percent agreement were estimated. Results: Only 24.6% of participants reported methamphetamine use during treatment. Self-reported methamphetamine use had a sensitivity of 50.0% and a NPV of 86.0%. The percent agreement, positive percent agreement, and Cohen's kappa statistic between self-reported use and the urine test were 86.0%, 42.8%, and 52.4%, respectively. No significant factors were found to be associated with the agreement between self-reported use and the urine test. Conclusions: The validity of self-reported methamphetamine use appears to be relatively acceptable and can be used with caution for monitoring treatment.
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    Effects of Ellagic Acid Supplementation on Antioxidant Status and Symptom Improvement in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder: A Double-blind Randomized Clinical Trial
    (Brieflands, 2024-07-14) Seyed Hamzeh Hosseini; Mehran Zarghami; Hossein Khadem Haghighian; Amirhosein Babaie roochi; saeid Abediankenari; Saeed Kargar Soleiman Abad; Gholamreza Houshmand
    Background: Depression is one of the most common mood disorders and a major public health concern. Ellagic acid (EA), a type of polyphenol, acts as a strong hydrogen bond network as an electron receptor, enabling it to participate in various reactions. Objectives: Major depression is a critical medical condition that has emerged as a public health issue due to its high incidence, mortality, and suicide rates. One significant factor in the pathogenesis of depression is oxidative stress. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of ellagic acid supplementation on antioxidant status and symptom improvement in patients with major depressive disorder, considering the antioxidant capabilities of ellagic acid. Methods: A total of 40 patients diagnosed with major depressive disorder based on DSM-V criteria were assessed using the Beck Depression and Hamilton Depression Questionnaires. The dietary and caloric intake of the patients were monitored. Additionally, height and weight were measured, and patients with similar age, gender, and weight were matched. The individuals were randomly assigned to either the intervention group or the placebo group using a randomization table. The intervention group received a daily dose of 200 mg of ellagic acid in capsule form. The placebo group received a daily dose of one capsule containing 200 mg of wheat flour, identical in appearance to the intervention substance. The study period lasted for 8 weeks. Venous blood samples were collected before and after the study from all 40 individuals, and after serum separation, oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde and total antioxidant capacity). were measured using a specific kit and ELISA method. Results: The study results showed a significant reduction in depression scores in the ellagic acid group during the study (P: 0.001)., with these alterations being significant when compared to the placebo group. In the ellagic acid group, a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity (P: 0.027). and a significant decrease in malondialdehyde levels (P: 0.014). were observed at the end of the study, and these changes were significant compared to the placebo group. In contrast, significant changes in total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde levels were not observed in the placebo group. Conclusions: The current study indicates that ellagic acid intervention may have a favorable effect on depression in patients with major depressive disorder. This is achieved by reducing BDI scores and serum levels of MDA, as well as increasing serum levels of TAC in these patients compared to the placebo group. However, further investigation is necessary to explore the mechanisms underlying the different alterations of ellagic acid in depression.
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    Cognitive Impairments and Its Related Factors in People Who Injects Drugs in Iran
    (Brieflands, 2024-07-13) Mohammad Sayad Nasiri; Mohammad Hasan Farhadi; Alireza Noroozi; Narges Dostkaramooz; Jafar Babapour; Ali Nazeri Astaneh; Mehdi Noroozi
    Background: One of the most common psychological problems among people who use drugs (PWUD) is cognitive impairments (CIs). Several studies show that the prevalence of cognitive impairments in PWUD is higher than in the general population. Objectives: The aim of the current study was to investigate the prevalence of CI and its related factors among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Iran. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed among PWID in 2023. About 410 PWID were recruited using snowball and convenience sampling in four provinces in Iran. Demographic and clinical data, as well as the status of cognitive impairments, were collected using bio-behavioral and Montreal Cognitive Assessment questionnaires, respectively. We examined the relationship between all independent variables and CIs status using bivariate logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of CI among participants was 28% (95% confidence interval (CI): 22% - 32%). Behaviors associated with an increased risk of CIs included the length of injecting drug use [adjusted odds ratios (aOR) = 2.7, P = 0.01], methamphetamine use (aOR = 2.8, P < 0.05), and alcohol use (aOR = 2.8, P < 0.05). Conclusions: Methamphetamine and alcohol use were identified as the main predictors of cognitive impairments among PWID. It also seems necessary to consider new interventions in harm reduction programs to address cognitive impairments.
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    Methanol Poisoning and Its Clinical Complications During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Iran: A Systematic Review
    (Brieflands, 2024-05-21) Kamaledin Alaedini; Zahra Behroozi; Aghdas Souresrafil; Mohammad Barzegar; Maryam Sefidgarnia; Mahsa Tashakori-Miyanroudi
    Background: During the COVID-19 pandemic, there was a surge in the consumption of beverages containing methanol, as individuals have erroneously surmised that the ingestion of alcohol could potentially serve as a protective measure against the virus. Objectives: The aim of this systematic study was to investigate methanol toxicity and its clinical complications during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: A comprehensive search for sources was conducted across multiple databases, including PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus, as well as Iranian databases such as Magiran, Iran Doc, and SID. The search spanned from December 2019 to November 2022. The inclusion criteria for this review specified cross-sectional studies that examined the prevalence of methanol toxicity and its complications during the COVID-19 pandemic in Iran. Methodological quality was assessed for each study included in the review. Results: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the consumption of alcohol, including ethanol and methanol, increased. Men were more likely to consume alcohol compared to women, and a higher number of deaths were reported among young individuals. Visual impairment emerged as one of the most common complications of methanol poisoning, with an increase in its incidence during the disease outbreak. Conclusions: Given the growing concerns about methanol poisoning, enhancing public awareness could significantly reduce both the prevalence of clinical complications and mortality rates. Therefore, it is recommended that greater emphasis be placed on improving education and raising awareness about methanol poisoning within Iran.
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    Reliability and Validity of the Persian Version of Templer Death Anxiety Scale-Extended in Veterans of Iran–Iraq Warfare
    (Brieflands, 2014-12-30) Hamid Sharif Nia; Abbas Ebadi; Rebecca H Lehto; Batool Mousavi; Hamid Peyrovi; Yiong Huak Chan
    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the validity and reliability of the Persian version of Templer Death Anxiety Scale-Extended (DAS-E) in veterans of Iran–Iraq Warfare.
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    25b-NBOMe: A Case Report of Sudden Death and Insightful View of Google Trends Data
    (Brieflands, 2018-03-31) Ahmed Al-Imam
    Introduction: The phenethylamine derivative 25b-NBOMe is a potent hallucinogen and a serotoninergic agonist. Other forms of NBOMe also exist, including 25c-NBOMe and the more powerful 25i-NBOMe. 25b-NBOMe has been incriminated with cases of intoxication among teenagers and adults worldwide. Case Presentation: This manuscript is an analytic storytelling of a tragic case of death induced by the 25b-NBOMe substance abuse by a 17-year-old male who was completely healthy and a charismatic high school student. Recreationally, the patient had ingested three sublingual tablets of 25b-NBOMe. Unfortunately, this psychedelic trip has put an end to his life. The reason for death was reported to be cardiac arrest, because of the cardiac arrhythmia. The concentration of 25b-NBOMe detected in postmortem heart blood was 3.14 ng/mL. Conclusions: This case represents one of the very few documented cases in the literature, which ended in death from the 25b variant. It is to be concluded that these death incidents can be attributed either to an idiosyncratic reaction or to the presence of an unknown mixture of different ingredients and contaminants in these designer drugs. This case report is the first in published literature to be also correlated with data from Google trends databases.
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    Knowledge and Attitudes of University Students Towards Hookah Smoking in Fasa, Iran
    (Brieflands, 2018-03-31) Ali Khani Jeihooni; Zahra Khiyali; Seyyed Mansour Kashfi; Seyyed Hannan Kashfi; Mohammad Zakeri; Mehdi Amirkhani
    Background: The habit of hookah smoking is increasing among the youth, which requires more attention. Objectives: This study aimed to assess knowledge and attitudes of university students towards hookah smoking in Fasa, Iran, based on the theory of planned behavior (TPB). Methods: This study was conducted on 157 university students in Fasa, Fars Province, Iran, in 2015. The data were collected using a questionnaire including demographic information and TPB constructs. Then, the data were entered into the SPSS version 19 statistical software and analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Results: The results showed that 80% of the students had plans for the cessation of hookah smoking. Additionally, a significant difference was found among the students of different universities regarding the scores of attitude (P = 0.003) and behavioral intention (P = 0.005). Moreover, the results of Mann-Whitney test showed that the scores of behavioral intention and attitude were higher among male participants (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.004, respectively). However, females obtained significantly higher scores regarding peer opinion (P < 0.001). Although the students believed that quitting smoking could help prevent many diseases, they continued hookah smoking because they thought it was non-addictive, relieved anxiety and fatigue, and its cessation might lead to the loss of contact with friends. Conclusions: Interventions for the cessation of hookah smoking should be based on elimination of positive attitudes toward hookah smoking and promotion of refusal skills, relaxation, and skills to cope with the temptation of hookah smoking.
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    Atomoxetine Versus Combination of Methylphenidate Plus Fluoxetine for Management of Anxiety Disorders in ADHD Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial
    (Brieflands, 2023-06-30) Afsaneh Karbasi; Shahrzad Aghili
    Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most common psychiatric disorder in childhood. Concurrent anxiety disorders have turned into a challenging issue for psychiatrists. Numerous medications have been applied with controversial responses. Objectives: The current study aimed to compare the efficacy of the combination of methylphenidate (MPH) and fluoxetine (FLX) versus atomoxetine (ATX) in the symptoms and function of ADHD children with concurrent anxiety disorders. Methods: The current randomized clinical was conducted on 76 outpatient children with concurrent ADHD and anxiety disorder within 2020 - 2021. The patients were divided into two equal groups. The first group was treated with MPH (5 mg twice daily) plus FLX (10 - 20 mg daily); nevertheless, the second group received ATX with a dose of 1.4 mg/kg. The Conner’s Parents Rating Scale (CPRS), Screen for Child Anxiety Related Emotional Disorders (SCARED), and Children’s Anxiety Impact Scale-Child (CAIS-C) were applied to assess anxiety at the baseline and 1 month and 4 months after the interventions. Results: The mean age of the studied population was 9.26 ± 1.92 years (range: 6 - 12 years), and 46 subjects (57.89%) were male. The significant trends of improvement in both groups, regardless of the interventions in the assessments of all the scales, were noted (P < 0.001 for all the scales); however, the comparison of the groups revealed no differences in the CPRS (P = 0.397), SACRED (P = 0.663), and CAIS-C (P = 0.683). Conclusions: Based on the findings of this study, as ATX alone was as effective as MPH plus FLX for controlling anxiety disorders among ADHD children, ATX is preferred to apply fewer daily medications.
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    Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy in Depression and Anxiety in People with Substance Use Disorder
    (Brieflands, 2022-03-31) Zohreh Hashemi; Sanaz Eyni; Matineh Ebadi
    Background: The comorbidity of substance use, mood disorders, and anxiety has been proven in various studies, leading to many clinical implications. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) in depression and anxiety in individuals with substance use disorder. Methods: This quasi-experimental study utilized a pretest-posttest design with a control group. The statistical population consisted of all people with substance abuse in Urmia in 2019, including 220 subjects. The sample consisted of 50 individuals with substance use disorders selected by purposive sampling and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group was trained in eight sessions, each lasting 90 min, based on the ACT protocol by Hayes et al. (2004), while the control group did not receive any intervention. The data were obtained using the Beck Depression Inventory and Beck Anxiety Inventory. Pretest and posttest were performed in both groups. The collected data were analyzed by multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) using SPSS23 software. Results: The results showed that after controlling for the pretest effects, a significant difference was observed between the mean posttest scores of the two groups in both depression and anxiety (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Acceptance and commitment therapy is an appropriate strategy to effectively improve depression and anxiety in people with substance use disorder.
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    Trend of Suicide in Iran During 2009 to 2012: Epidemiological Evidences from National Suicide Registration
    (Brieflands, 2016-12-31) Ahmad Hajebi; Masoud Ahmadzad-Asl; Farnoush Davoudi; Raoofeh Ghayyomi
    Background: Suicide behaviors cause a large portion of Disability adjusted life years worldwide. Objectives: The aim of this research was to study the trend, correlations and discrepancy of registered suicide incidents in Iran from 2009 to 2012 using data from the Iranian suicide registry. Materials and Methods: Suicide registry entries throughout the country between 2009 and 2012, including suicidal attempts and suicides, were collected. Data on age, gender, occupational, marital and residential status along with suicide method, history of previous attempt and history of medical or mental disorders were registered by health service provision staff at the service centers. Geographic mapping and statistical analysis were performed. Results: Amongst the 252911 attempted suicides during the period, we found suicide attempt and suicide rate of 30.5 - 44.8 and 1.76 - 2.23 per 100000 individuals, respectively, denoting overall suicide fatality rate of 2.63%. The rate of suicide attempt in different provinces ranged between 0.7 and 271.1 and the rate of suicide between 0.17 and 17.7 per 100000 individuals. Attempted suicides showed more fatality in males, elderly, widow/widowers, divorced and unemployed subjects as well as in residents of rural areas. The most common attempt methods were medication overdose (84%), and the most common suicide methods were hanging (30.3%), medications overdose (28.1%) and self-burning (17.9%); these methods are found at different rates in various parts of the world. Conclusions: While the registry could provide us the most valid data on suicide, the wide range of suicide and suicide attempt rates in different provinces not only could question this statement but also could highlight the importance of studying the ethnic/geographic variations in suicide epidemiology with improved suicide registry and surveillance systems.
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    Looking for the Possible Association Between Stress, Presenteeism and Absenteeism Among Croatian Nurses: A Cross-Sectional Study
    (Brieflands, 2016-12-31) Hana Brborovic; Ognjen Brborovic; Jadranka Mustajbegovic
    Background: Stress is an important occupational hazard in numerous occupations. The consequences of stress have been associated with a number of health conditions. Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate whether nurses’ perceived levels of stress are associated to presenteeism and absenteeism. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, conducted at a public general hospital in Croatia, medical nurses filled the perceived stress scale (PSS-10) and short-form of the World health organization health and work performance questionnaire (WHO HPQ). Results: Nurses experiencing absenteeism (26, 53%) had a little higher levels of stress (X = 18.85, SD = 7.31) when compared to those without absenteeism (X = 17.52, SD = 6.63), t (144) = 1.037, P = 0.301. Nurses with presenteeism (15.74%) had statistically significantly higher levels of stress (M = 21.42, SD = 5.62), compared to nurses without presenteeism (X = 17.35, SD = 6.84), t(144) = 2.47, P = 0.015. Linear regression (R2 = 0.032, P = 0.036) showed an association between presenteeism and stress (B = 3.952, S.E. = 1.26, β = 0.069). No association was found between absenteeism and stress. Conclusions: Although there is an association between presenteeism and stress, we cannot draw a causal line from this finding.
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    Validating the Young Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire (YEMSQ) among Students
    (Brieflands, 2010-06-30) Naser Yousefi; Naser Shirbagi
    Objective: Early maladaptive schemas are deep feelings or patterns that are formed in childhood and recur later in their lifetime. Young has classified these schemas. The purpose of the present study was to validate the Young Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaire (YEMSQ) for early maladaptive schemas in a group of university students.
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    Intimate Partner Violence Concerns During COVID-19 Pandemic
    (Brieflands, 2020-06-30) Mehran Zarghami; Munn-Sann Lye; Jamshid Yazdani Charati; Fatemeh Abdollahi
    This article does not have an abstract.
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    Perspective of Postpartum Depression Treatment in Iran
    (Brieflands, 2020-06-09) Fatemeh Abdollahi; Munn-Sann Lye; Mehran Zarghami
    This article does not have an abstract.
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    Type D Personality and Its Relationship with Perceived Stress Among Women with Breast Cancer Attending a Referral Center in Northern Iran in 2017
    (Brieflands, 2020-09-02) Siavash Moradi; Malihe Talebi Amrei; Ghasem Janbabai; Fateme Zamani
    Background: The impact of personality traits such as type D personality on the development of psychosomatic illnesses such as cancer has been found by many researchers in the field of health psychology. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to investigate the status of the type D personality trait and its relationship with perceived stress among women with breast cancer. Methods: This cross-sectional study enrolled 120 cancer patients during 2017. After applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria and obtaining informed consent, the patients were selected using the convenience sampling method and evaluated by the Type D Personality Scale (DS14) and Perceived Stress Scale (PSS). Results: In this study, 69.2% of the patients obtained a score of ≥ 29 in the DS14 questionnaire. Correlation analysis between the components of DS14 and the final score of PSS showed that both social inhibition and negative affectivity had direct correlations with perceived stress (r = 0.35 and r = 0.6, respectively; P < 0.001). Conclusions: One of the most important results of this study was a relatively high score of type D personality among patients with breast cancer and the high contribution of negative affectivity to the perceived stress by patients with this type of personality. The particular status of type D personality traits among cancer patients can be used to design psychotherapy programs for them to prevent disease progression.
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    Psychometric Properties of the Pornography Craving Questionnaire (PCQ) in Iran
    (Brieflands, 2020-09-30) Nader Molavi; Shahrzad Khosravifar; Masumeh Ghazanfanpour; Mohammad Reza Najarzadegan; Abdolhadi Saeidi; Masoudeh Babakhanian
    Objectives: Addiction to pornography is one of the most important behavioral addictions among Iranian youth. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a measurement scale of “cravings for pornography” Iran. Methods: This Psychometric study was conducted on a 234 general Iranian population sample in 2017 with a random sampling method. In this study, the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the Pornography Craving Questionnaire were evaluated. Data were analyzed by exploratory factor analysis using SPSS version 23. The questionnaire was administered online (Telegram application and email). Results: The age range of 234 study participants was 13 to 51 years (mean = 29.7); 97 females (41.5%) and 135 males (57.7%). To determine this questionnaire’s cut-off value, we divided into three categories of low or no craving (12 - 36), average (36 - 60), and high (60 - 84). The result of exploratory factor analysis for these questions identified two factors (Psychological reactions and Desire). Cronbach’s alpha was 0.8. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, the Persian version of the “the pornography craving questionnaire” has sufficient reliability and validity in Iranian society.
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    Effectiveness of Exposure/Response Prevention plus Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Reducing Anxiety and Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms Associated with Stressful Life Experiences: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    (Brieflands, 2020-08-04) Mohammad Ebrahim Sarichloo; Farhad Taremian; Behrouz Dolatshahee; Seyed Alireza Haji Seyed Javadi
    Background: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is known as a non-psychotic mental disorder resistant to treatment. It has been found that eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) can increase the effectiveness of its standard treatments. Objectives: The current study aimed at evaluating the impact of exposure/response prevention (ERP) combined with EMDR as a treatment method on patients with OCD who had experienced stressful life events by comparison to ERP alone. Methods: The present randomized controlled trial was conducted among 60 OCD patients who experienced stressful life events and were resistant to medication treatment. The participants were randomly assigned to the ERP plus EMDR (n = 30) and ERP (n = 30) groups. The Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive scale (Y-BOCS) and Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) were completed before and after the intervention, as well as, after a follow-up period of three months. The scores were compared using the chi‐squared test, analysis of covariance (ANCOVA), and repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Results: ANOVA results demonstrated that both treatment protocols had a significant effect on the reduction of anxiety and severity of OCD symptoms, while the results of ANCOVA showed a significantly higher effect of ERP plus EMDR compared to the ERP protocol (P = 0.001), and sample attrition was significantly higher in the ERP group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The ERP plus EMDR protocol compared to the ERP protocol showed a higher rate of completion and efficacy in OCD treatment.
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    Stress Reduction Model of COVID-19 Pandemic
    (Brieflands, 2020-05-02) Mohsen Khosravi
    This article does not have an abstract.