Archives of Neuroscience

In Collaboration with Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center, TUMS

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Archives of Neuroscience is a clinical and basic journal which is informative to all practitioners like Neurosurgeons, Neurologists, Psychiatrists, and Neuroscientists. It is the official journal of the Brain and Spinal Injury Research Center. The Major theme of this journal is to follow the path of scientific collaboration, spontaneity, and goodwill for the future, by providing up-to-date knowledge for the readers. The journal aims to cover different fields, as the name implies, ranging from research in basic and clinical sciences to core topics such as patient care, education, procuring and correct utilization of resources, and bringing to the limelight the cherished goals of the institute in providing standard care for the physically disabled patients. This quarterly journal offers a venue for our researchers and scientists to vent their innovative and constructive research works. The scope of the journal is as far wide as the universe as declared by the name of the journal, but we aim to pursue our sacred goals of providing a panacea for intractable ailments, that leave a psychological element in the daily life of such patients. This authoritative clinical and basic journal was founded by Professor Madjid Samii in 2012.

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1) Double-Blind Peer Review System

2) Open Peer Review (since Aug 2019), Show List of All Published Reviewers' Comments

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Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 445
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    Headache and Dizziness as Prevailing Clinical Manifestations in Parkinson's Patients Following COVID-19
    (Brieflands, 2024-07-31) Mohammad Haddadi; Yasamin Meamarzadegan; Ali Vasheghani Farahani; Alireza Etrati Kooshali; Sheida Sarrafzadeh; Parsa Ghafari; Parsa Nobaveh; Omid Salahi Ardekani; Zahra Taghiabadi; Saeed Motlaghzadeh; Sepehr Damghani; Arash Letafati
    Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has posed significant global health challenges, particularly for vulnerable populations. Objectives: This retrospective report from the Iranian Network for Research in Viral Diseases (INRVD) investigates the common clinical symptoms of COVID-19 in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Research suggests neurological complications can occur during SARS-CoV-2 infection, but there are limited studies on neurological symptoms in PD patients with COVID-19. Given the probable heightened vulnerability of PD patients, evaluating clinical symptoms, especially neurological manifestations, is crucial. Methods: Data from 54 patients were collected from the INRVD from March 2020 to May 2021. Nasal, oropharyngeal, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from patients presenting with respiratory symptoms, following Iranian CDC guidelines. Following sample collection, RT-PCR assays were performed for COVID-19 confirmation. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: Among the 54 PD patients included in the study, 27 tested positive for COVID-19. Of the 54 subjects analyzed, 38.9% were female and 61.1% were male. Comparison of COVID-19 symptoms revealed a higher rate of sore throat (74%) and shortness of breath (81%) in the COVID-19 positive group as common clinical symptoms of the disease. Interestingly, higher rates of dizziness (67%) and headache (74%) were observed in PD patients with COVID-19. Conclusions: This study enhances our understanding of the diverse clinical manifestations of COVID-19 and its impact on individuals with underlying health conditions such as PD. The increased prevalence of neurological symptoms among PD patients underscores the need for further investigation to clarify whether these symptoms directly result from COVID-19 infection or if they may also be influenced by PD itself or its treatment. It is important to consider that while neurological symptoms in Parkinson's patients can be attributed to the underlying disorder or linked to medication and medical interventions, respiratory symptoms are typically associated with COVID-19.
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    Headache and Dizziness as Prevailing Clinical Manifestations in Parkinson's Patients Following COVID-19
    (Brieflands, 2024-07-31) Mohammad Haddadi; Yasamin Meamarzadegan; Ali Vasheghani Farahani; Alireza Etrati Kooshali; Sheida Sarrafzadeh; Parsa Ghafari; Parsa Nobaveh; Omid Salahi Ardekani; Zahra Taghiabadi; Saeed Motlaghzadeh; Sepehr Damghani; Arash Letafati
    Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has posed significant global health challenges, particularly for vulnerable populations. Objectives: This retrospective report from the Iranian Network for Research in Viral Diseases (INRVD) investigates the common clinical symptoms of COVID-19 in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Research suggests neurological complications can occur during SARS-CoV-2 infection, but there are limited studies on neurological symptoms in PD patients with COVID-19. Given the probable heightened vulnerability of PD patients, evaluating clinical symptoms, especially neurological manifestations, is crucial. Methods: Data from 54 patients were collected from the INRVD from March 2020 to May 2021. Nasal, oropharyngeal, and nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from patients presenting with respiratory symptoms, following Iranian CDC guidelines. Following sample collection, RT-PCR assays were performed for COVID-19 confirmation. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Chi-square test and Fisher's exact test. Results: Among the 54 PD patients included in the study, 27 tested positive for COVID-19. Of the 54 subjects analyzed, 38.9% were female and 61.1% were male. Comparison of COVID-19 symptoms revealed a higher rate of sore throat (74%) and shortness of breath (81%) in the COVID-19 positive group as common clinical symptoms of the disease. Interestingly, higher rates of dizziness (67%) and headache (74%) were observed in PD patients with COVID-19. Conclusions: This study enhances our understanding of the diverse clinical manifestations of COVID-19 and its impact on individuals with underlying health conditions such as PD. The increased prevalence of neurological symptoms among PD patients underscores the need for further investigation to clarify whether these symptoms directly result from COVID-19 infection or if they may also be influenced by PD itself or its treatment. It is important to consider that while neurological symptoms in Parkinson's patients can be attributed to the underlying disorder or linked to medication and medical interventions, respiratory symptoms are typically associated with COVID-19.
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    Effects of Chronic Pain Following Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction on Hippocampal CA1 Pyramidal Neurons in Male Wistar Rats
    (Brieflands, 2024-07-31) Sajjad Salari; Maryam Maleki; Maryam Bagheri
    Background: Chronic pain can adversely affect cognitive functions such as learning, memory, and attention. However, the precise mechanisms underlying cognitive impairment in chronic pain remain elusive. Objectives: This study aims to investigate the impact of chronic pain induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) on hippocampal neurons. Methods: In the current case-control study, 27 male Wistar rats (230 - 280 g) were randomly assigned to three groups: 1-sham, 2-UUO, and 3-UUO treated with naloxone (i.p.; 1 mg/kg for 5 days). Following transcardial perfusion, the rats' brains were removed, and histological studies were performed to count the number of neurons using an optical microscope. Concurrently, TNF-α and NGF levels were measured in brain tissue homogenate. Results: The mean number of neurons in the CA1 region of the animals in the UUO group was 68.11 ± 1.34, which showed a significant decrease compared to the mean number of neurons in the sham-operated group (114.1 ± 1.77; P < 0.0001). In contrast, the mean number of neurons in the CA1 region of the UUO with naloxone group showed a significant increase compared to the animals in the UUO group (73.44 ± 1.37; P < 0.0001). TNF-α was 264.3 ± 2.6 pg/mL in the UUO animals and decreased significantly in the UUO animals treated with naloxone (P = 0.001). However, NGF was 115.2 ± 2.9 pg/mL in UUO animals and increased significantly in the UUO with naloxone group (P < 0.01). Conclusions: Unilateral ureteral obstruction, through inducing chronic pain and inflammation, resulted in neurodegeneration in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. The use of naloxone, an opioid antagonist, immediately after the surgery was able to provide neuronal protection and an anti-inflammatory effect.
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    Epidemiology of Neurosurgical and Orthopedic Trauma in Children: A Study in the West of Iran
    (Brieflands, 2024-07-31) Hassan Reza Mohammadi; Aryoobarzan Rahmatian; Sohrab Sadeghi; Hosein Karimiyarandi
    Background: Trauma can be categorized based on the characteristics of its cause into penetrating, blunt, thermal, or compressive trauma. Another type of classification is based on anatomical location, as trauma may occur at any anatomical site of the body. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the epidemiology of neurosurgical and orthopedic trauma among children in the city of Ilam. Methods: In this retrospective study, the health records of all patients aged 6 to 18 years with orthopedic and neurosurgical trauma who were referred to the hospital in Ilam were investigated. Since Imam Khomeini Hospital is the only public hospital for trauma patients in this city, only the records of patients who were referred to this hospital were reviewed. Results: Results showed that in the neurosurgical trauma group, out of 145 reviewed cases, 96 (66.2%) patients were male and 49 (33.8%) were female. In relation to orthopedic traumas, out of 570 investigated cases, 386 (67.7%) were male and 184 (32.2%) were female. Additionally, results showed that 224 (39.3%) patients had fractures in the right hand, 255 (44.7%) had fractures in the left hand, and 91 (16%) had fractures in both hands. Furthermore, 21 (14.5%) patients had cervical spine injuries, 35 (24.1%) had thoracic spine injuries, 54 (37.2%) had lumbar spine injuries, and 35 (24.1%) had brain trauma. Conclusions: In the present study, the epidemiology of neurosurgical and orthopedic trauma in children was investigated. Given the prevalence of these types of trauma in Ilam, it is necessary to provide essential training to prevent or reduce their occurrence in the future.
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    The Effect of Synbiotic as an Adjuvant Therapy to Fluoxetine in Moderate Depression: A Randomized Multicenter Trial
    (Brieflands, 2018-04-30) Zeinab Ghorbani; Sara Nazari; Farnaz Etesam; Saeedeh Nourimajd; Mohammad Ahmadpanah; Soodeh Razeghi Jahromi
    Background: Depression is a serious and burdensome disorder in modern societies, with lifetime prevalence of about 16%. Disturbed immune responses in the gut and immune-privileged sites including the central nervous system might occur subsequent to dysbiosis of gut microbiome. In this study we aimed at assessing the efficacy of 6 weeks synbiotic supplementation in the treatment of moderate depression in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, multi-center, and randomized trial. Methods: A total of 40 adult outpatients, who met the diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders fifth edition for moderate depression, were recruited based on the structured interview for DSMV. Recruited patients had a Hamilton rating scale for depression (HAM-D) score of 17 to 23 at baseline. All patients received fluoxetine (20 mg/d) for 4 weeks. Then, either a synbiotic capsule (plus fluoxetine) or placebo (plus fluoxetine) was added to the therapy for 6 weeks. Results: The mean age of the participants in the synbiotic treated group was 34.45 years and it was 35.50 years in the placebo group. Following the adjustment of ANCOVA models for gender, age, and BMI at baseline, there was a greater reduction in HAM-D score in synbiotic treated patients (Mean ± SD = -19.25 ± 1.71) compared to placebo taking group (Mean ± SD = -17.75 ± 2.05; P = 0.024). At the end of the 10th week of the intervention and after applying ANCOVA adjusted for the mentioned variables as well as baseline HAM-D score, it was found that the synbiotic group had a significantly decreased HAM-D score compared to the placebo (3.65 vs. 4.80, P = 0.013). Conclusions: The results of the current study revealed the efficacy of synbiotic as an adjuvant therapy in moderate depression.
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    Challenges of Patients with Spinal Cord Injury During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Qualitative Study
    (Brieflands, 2021-10-31) Masoud Hatefi; Milad Borji; Yousef Jamshidbeigi
    Background: Spinal cord injury (SCI) is a chronic condition leading to physical and psychological problems along with numerous economic burdens for patients. In late 2019, an unknown disease called COVID-19 broke out, which quickly spread throughout the world. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to determine the challenges of SCI patients during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This was a qualitative study performed among SCI patients after obtaining the code of ethics from the Research Ethics Committee of Ilam University of Medical Sciences in 2021. Data were collected using semi-structured, face-to-face individual interviews, in accordance with health protocols, in a safe environment without stress until reaching data saturation. Data were saturated after interviewing nine patients; to ensure data saturation, two additional interviews were conducted. Each interview lasted between 30 and 45 minutes, depending on the condition of each patient. The written files of the interviews were analyzed using MAXQDA software. Results: The mean age of the participants was 54 years. Thirty-two percent of the participants were female and 68% were male. After analyzing the data obtained from in-person interviews, three main themes, including expectations (need for financial support, need for social support, and need for physical support), concerns (fear of loneliness and fear of death), and health needs (health literacy, access to services and how to transmit the disease), were extracted. Conclusions: Considering the challenges in the three areas of expectations, concerns, and health care, it is necessary to take some measures to reduce these challenges.
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    A Survey on Respiratory and Neurological Symptoms in Alzheimer’s, Schizophrenia, Bipolar, and Migraine Patients Following COVID-19 Infection
    (Brieflands, 2023-10-31) Amir Aboofazeli; Sheida Sarrafzadeh; Ali Qaraee Najafabadi; Behnaz Hammami; Roben Soheili; Ahmadreza Sadeghi; Arash Letafati
    Background: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 2019 led to the global coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic with a wide range of clinical symptoms. Neurological complications have been a significant concern, with diverse symptoms and potential neuroinvasive mechanisms. The pandemic has also impacted individuals with mental health conditions, such as migraines, bipolar disorder (BD), and schizophrenia, highlighting the complex interconnections between physical and mental health during these challenging times. Objectives: This retrospective report from the Iranian Network for Research in Viral Diseases (INRVD) study aimed to investigate the multifaceted interactions between COVID-19, neurological complications, and mental health disorders (e.g., migraines, BD, and schizophrenia) to better understand their collective impact on individuals’ health and well-being. Methods: This study involved 63 individuals who tested positive for COVID-19, including 32 females (50.8%) and 31 males (49.2%). The participants were categorized into different groups based on their underlying conditions: 7 individuals with schizophrenia, 8 with BD, 6 with migraines, 12 with Alzheimer's disease, and 30 with COVID-19 without any underlying neurologic disorder. This investigation was carried out in 12 hospitals supervised by the INRVD between March 2020 and May 2021. The study used frequencies and percentages to describe the data and employed chi-square tests, including the contingency coefficient, to explore associations between COVID-19 symptoms and disease groups. Results: The analysis of clinical manifestations revealed distinctive patterns. Cough was the most prevalent symptom across the entire sample, affecting over 79% of participants. Fever followed as the second most common symptom, with approximately 62% of individuals reporting it. Fatigue ranked third, impacting 57% of the subjects. In contrast, vomiting was the least frequently reported symptom, with an incidence of only 14.3%. In terms of specific conditions, a notable discrepancy was observed in the prevalence of headaches. Although present in 71.4% of individuals with schizophrenia, this symptom was reported by only 50% of those with BD, followed by 66.7% with migraines and 83.3% with Alzheimer’s. The patients without neurologic disorders exhibited a lower incidence of neurological manifestations, with only 23.3% reporting headaches. Conclusions: This study provides insights into the clinical manifestations of COVID-19 in individuals with distinct underlying conditions. The prevalence and presentation of symptoms varied significantly across the different groups, and neurological symptoms exhibited a higher prevalence in this patient group than those without any underlying neurologic disorders. This study aimed for a more comprehensive understanding of the probable intricate interplay between COVID-19, underlying health conditions, and clinical manifestations. Understanding these differences is crucial for tailoring effective clinical interventions.
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    The Role of Next Generation Sequencing in Diagnosis of Brain Tumors: A Review Study
    (Brieflands, 2020-01-31) Sadegh Shirian; Yahya Daneshbod; Saranaz Jangjoo; Amir Ghaemi; Arash Goodarzi; Maryam Ghavideldarestani; Ahmad Emadi; Arman Ai; Akbar Ahmadi; Jafar Ai
    Since the number of prognostic and predictive neuro-oncologic genetic markers is steadily increasing, a comprehensive analysis of the molecular techniques used to examine neuro-oncology samples is vastly required. Molecular analysis and profiling of brain malignancies result in improved diagnostic accuracy, target identification, and predictive prognosis. Application of high-throughput molecular approaches, such as next generation sequencing (NGS), to analyze brain tumors has provided a large amount of molecular information. In the clinical practice, the application of NGS has been increased, which has consequently improved the treatment option for brain cancer as well as other types of malignancies. Target therapy has recently become one of the most promising treatment options for various tumors, especially brain tumors. In this review, we provided and summarized high-throughput genomic studies, such as NGS technique, that could independently identify the integrated management and diagnosis of primary human brain tumors across a variety of entities with pathognomonic genetic alterations.
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    Effects of Cognitive Rehabilitation on the Psychological Capital of the Elderly with Dementia
    (Brieflands, 2021-07-31) Seyed Abolfazl Mousavi; Jamshid Jarareh; Ali Reza Mohammadiarya; Behnaz Karami; Robabeh Keshavarz Mohammadi
    Background: Dementia affects mental health and psychological capital indicators, which disappear with gradual deterioration in mental and cognitive functions. Gradual loss of ability to function independently can cause negative emotional symptoms and even further reduce cognitive and functional impairment. Objectives: The current study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of cognitive rehabilitation on psychological capital in the elderly with dementia. Methods: The current quasi-experimental research was performed following a pre and -post test design with a control group. The effect of cognitive rehabilitation on psychological capital of patients aged 60 - 74 years who were admitted to the private Tehran clinics during 2020 was assessed. The convenience sampling method was used to select the participants. So that among eligible patients who had inclusion criteria, 11 were selected and then randomly divided into two groups. Lutans Psychological Capital Questionnaire was used to collect data. After the treatment, a post-test was carried out for all study groups. Data analysis was performed by analysis of covariance. Results: The results of the analysis of covariance indicated the effectiveness cognitive rehabilitation on psychological capital in the elderly with dementia (P < 0.05).
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    Testosterone Improved Hyperalgesia in a Patient Under Methadone Maintenance Treatment
    (Brieflands, 2022-01-31) Nader Charkhgard; Shahram Naderi; Kamyar Ghani; Mahboubeh Manouchehrabadi
    Introduction: Long-term use of narcotics causes hyperalgesia in some patients with an unknown mechanism known as opioid-induced hyperalgesia (OIH). Case Presentation: Testosterone was prescribed to a 43-year-old man suffering from the effects of OIH syndrome due to long-term use of methadone. Testosterone prescription significantly reduced the hyperalgesia. Conclusions: Testosterone may have a therapeutic value in OIH.
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    Reversible Peripheral Third Nerve Palsy Following Avulsion of the Sphenoid Wing Due to Blunt Head Injury: A Case Report and Review of Literature
    (Brieflands, 2017-10-31) Mohammadmostafa Harifi; Amin Tavallayi; Mohamad Shirani; Abbas Amirjamshidi; Maysam Alimohamadi
    Cranial nerve palsy following closed head injury is not very uncommon. Third nerve palsy may occur after a direct traumatic insult or indirect injury due to brain shift and herniation. Selective involvement of peripheral fibers of the third nerve is a very rare event after closed head injury. In this article, we report a rare case of peripheral third nerve paresis due to total avulsion of sphenoid wing following closed head injury with spontaneous full recovery of paresis.
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    Effectiveness of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy on Relieving Migraine Headaches
    (Brieflands, 2017-10-31) Hossein Mansourishad; Mansoureh Togha; Ahmad Borjali; Reza Karimi
    Background: The world health organization has ranked migraine among top 20 disabling diseases. The major adverse effects of migraine headaches on patients and society are an important public health concern. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on reducing the impact of migraine headaches on women. Methods: In the current study, a quasi-experimental design was applied. In this semi-experimental study, 26 women with migraine were selected via available sampling and were randomly placed into experimental (n, 13) and control (n, 13) groups. All 26 patients were asked to record their experience of headache attacks in terms of frequency, intensity, and duration for 1 month in a headache diary. Subsequently, the experimental group participated in 8 sessions of MBCT (2-hour sessions). Results: The analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated a significant decline in the mean headache frequency (P < 0.001), duration (P < 0.001), and severity (P < 0.001) in the experimental group. Conclusions: This trial empirically examined the efficacy of MBCT in the treatment of migraine headaches and showed that MBCT is effective in treating or alleviating migraine headaches. This study could provide a psychological approach for the future treatment of chronic pain to avoid relying on medications alone.
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    Experiences Related to the Injection of COVID-19 Vaccines in Patients with Multiple Sclerosis: A Qualitative Study
    (Brieflands, 2023-07-31) Aryoobarzan Rahmatian; Yousef Jamshidbeigi; Ali Molavi; Ebrahim Salimi
    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is the most common debilitating chronic autoimmune and inflammatory disorder of the central nervous system. Compared to the general population, MS patients are at a higher risk of contracting various diseases. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the challenges related to the injection of COVID-19 vaccines in people with MS. Methods: In this qualitative research that was conducted on patients with MS, the data were collected in a secure environment through semi-structured interviews. We continued the interviews until data saturation, which was reached after 10 interviews, but 2 more interviews were conducted to make sure of data saturation. The duration of each interview was 30 - 45 minutes, depending on each patient's condition. The data were managed in MAXQDA 10. Results: Of the participants, 66% were female, and the average age of the patients was 47 years. After analyzing the interviews, 4 main categories and 19 subcategories were extracted: mental concerns (hearing rumors, hearing news of death due to COVID-19, worrying about the unknowns of new vaccines, and worrying about side effects and treatment interactions), quarantine suffering (movement complications, depression, weak immune system, social distancing, and compliance with health protocols), educational resources (doctors, clinic staff, national media, cyberspace, and family) and personal experiences (effectiveness of the COVID-19 vaccine, reduction of symptoms compared to unvaccinated people, and having no complications). Conclusions: It is essential to take measures to decrease the existing challenges. For example, the patients were afraid of drug interactions and the lack of full understanding of the disease by doctors. In general, they had many questions, while they did not know a reliable source of information. They chose doctors as the most reliable source; this choice shows the importance and capacity of the doctor's position in relation to vaccination, which can be used to explain and promote vaccination in schools, offices, factories, and other parts of society. Besides, in relation to research on new diseases, a task force should be formed for each disease, and the mutual impacts of diseases and their drug interactions should be investigated; in this way, fewer concerns and problems arise during vaccination and treatment.
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    New Histophatological Finding About Data Destroying Amyloid Black Holes in Hippocampus Following Olfactory Bulb Lesion Like as the Universe
    (Brieflands, 2022-10-31) Mehmet Dumlu Aydin; Ayca Aydin; Aybike Aydin; Elif Oral Ahiskalioglu; Ali Ahiskalioglu; Sevilay Ozmen; Ayhan Kanat
    Background: Many infinite theories have been suggested to explain memory loss in neurodegenerative diseases. However, there is no data that iron-containing neurofibrillary networks can cause neuron death and erase the memory of neurons, just like black holes in space. Objectives: Ths study aimed to investigate the electromagnetic properties of iron-loaded neurofibrillary networks formed in the hippocampus as a result of damage to the olfactory nerves, just like black holes in space, as well as whether they cause neuron death and memory loss. Methods: All rats were tested with star maze performance before, 3 weeks, and 3 months after surgery. The data used in the study were obtained from the subjects in the experimental groups who had been followed up for 3 months with control (GI; n = 5), SHAM (GII; n = 5) with only frontal burr hole, and study (GIII; n = 15) animals with olfactory bulb lesion. All rats were tested with star maze performance before, 3 weeks, and 3 months after surgery. The olfactory bulbs and hippocampus of subjects were examined by stereological methods. Olfactory bulb volumes, degenerated neuron densities of the hippocampus, and numbers of hippocampal black holes were estimated quantitatively, and results were statistically analyzed by a 1-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The properties of black holes in the brains and the universe were compared theoretically. Results: The mean olfactory bulb volumes, degenerated neuron density, and black holes of the hippocampus were estimated as 4.43 ± 0.22 mm3, 42 ± 9 mm3, and 3 ± 1 mm3 in GI, 4.01 ± 0.19 mm3, 257 ± 78 mm3, and 11 ± 3 mm3 in GII, and 2.4 ± 0.8 mm3, 1675 ± 119 mm3, and 34 ± 7 mm3 in GIII. All animals were tested with star maze performance before, 3 weeks, and 3 months after surgery. Latency, distance, speed, and path efficiency values of all animals were detected. The more diminished olfactory bulb volume (P < 0.00001) causes more apoptotic neurons and black holes in the hippocampus (P < 0.0001) and more memory loss in olfactory bulb lesion (OBL)-applied animals (P < 0.005). Conclusions: Hippocampal black holes, which are similar to black holes in terms of their formation processes, may be responsible for neuronal losses and memory erasures in the brain by acting like black holes in space. These amyloid plaques, which cause neuron death and memory loss, will be called data-deleting amyloid black holes (DADA-Black Holes) in the paper.
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    Accelerating Remobilization Time Following Spine Surgery Using Enhanced Recovery After Surgery: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    (Brieflands, 2023-04-30) Arash Heroabadi; Sahar Adeli; Hesam Aldin Varpaei
    Background: The enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocol encompasses a set of evidence-based interventions implemented preoperatively, intraoperatively, and postoperatively. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the impact of applying an accelerated recovery method on remobilization time in patients undergoing spinal surgery compared to a control group. Methods: This randomized controlled trial took place at Shariati Hospital in Tehran, Iran. Eligible participants scheduled for elective spine surgery were enrolled in the study. Remobilization was defined as the patient's ability to independently leave the bed and ambulate. The ERAS protocol, derived from recommendations by the ERAS Society, was implemented. Total intravenous anesthesia was administered for induction and maintenance. The means of variables between the control and intervention groups were compared using an independent t-test. Changes in patients' pain intensity over time were examined through a repeated-measures ANOVA test. Multiple regression analysis was conducted to identify predictors of remobilization time. Results: A total of 70 patients (mean age 47.56 ± 14.08) were included in the study. The control group exhibited a significantly longer hospital stay compared to the ERAS group (46 h vs. 32 h). Furthermore, the ERAS group demonstrated a significantly shorter remobilization time after surgery compared to the control group (18 h vs. 8 h) (P < 0.001). Both groups exhibited a downward trend in overall pain, with the ERAS group experiencing a significantly faster pain reduction (η2 = 0.106, λ = 0.171, P < 0.001). Remobilization time exhibited significant correlations with pain intensity immediately after surgery (r = 0.651, P < 0.001), pain intensity one hour after surgery (r = 0.723, P < 0.001), pain intensity six hours after surgery (r = 0.391, P = 0.001), fentanyl dose (r = 0.728, P < 0.001), and length of hospital stay (r = 0.727, P < 0.001). Multiple regression analysis revealed that pain intensity one hour after surgery, fentanyl dose, and hospital stay significantly predicted remobilization time (F (9,60) = 22.751, P < 0.001). Conclusions: The implementation of the ERAS protocol yielded several beneficial outcomes, including reduced pain intensity, shorter ICU and hospital stays, and accelerated remobilization time. Pain intensity and opioid consumption (as analgesia) emerged as significant predictors of remobilization time.
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    Fighting Against Aging-Related Dysfunction Under Variable Stress: Possible Antioxidant and Neuroprotective Roles of Metformin via Increased Superoxide Dismutase and Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor
    (Brieflands, 2023-10-31) Mohammad Pak-Hashemi; Mahsa Hassanipour; Ayat Kaeedi; Pooya Saeed-Askari; Iman Fatemi; Zahra Taghipour; Mohadeseh Mohammadi; Mohammad Allahtavakoli
    Background: Chronic stress causes a deleterious impact on older adults and accelerates the aging process through different mechanisms, such as increased oxidative stress. Metformin, a drug with pleiotropic effects, exhibited neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. Objectives: Our study aimed to investigate the metformin effects on aging under stress conditions. Methods: Old male rats (18 months) were divided into 6 experimental groups (N = 8): 1 = control; 2 and 3 = metformin (1 or 10 mg/kg, orally, 40 days); 4 = stress (40 days); 5 and 6 = stress + metformin (1 or 10 mg/kg, orally, 40 days). Chronic variable stress was induced with 7 types of stressors for 40 days. Neurobehavioral functions were evaluated using the Morris water maze, Y-maze, elevated plus maze, open field, forced swimming test, rotarod, and exhausting swimming test. In addition, BDNF level and SOD activity were measured. Results: Stress induction increased memory deficits, anxiety, depression, and muscle fatigue in old rats. Metformin (10 mg/kg) enhanced memory performance and muscle strength and diminished anxiety and depression in stressed animals (P < 0.05). Treatment with metformin increased the BDNF brain level and SOD activity (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Metformin restored neurobehavioral disruptive changes induced by chronic stress in old rats. The underlying mechanisms could be related to the prevention of oxidative stress and neuronal damage and elevation of BDNF levels in the brain.
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    Effect of Nortriptyline on Spreading Depolarization
    (Brieflands, 2020-06-10) Ebrahim Behzad; Mojdeh Ghabaee; Mohammad Reza Bigdeli; Farshid Noorbakhsh; Ali Gorji; Mahmoudreza Hadjighassem
    Background: Spreading depolarization is associated with the extension of lesion size and complications in some important neurological diseases such as stroke, epilepsy, migraine, and traumatic brain injury. Objectives: This study aimed to reveal some molecular aspects of spreading depolarization and suggesting new therapeutic targets for its control by changing the function of different astrocytic and neuronal ion channels. Methods: The effects of nortriptyline on spreading depolarization in cortical and hippocampal tissues and on the electrophysiological properties of CA1 hippocampal pyramidal neurons were assessed by extra- and intracellular recording, following washing rat brain slices by the drug. Results: Nortriptyline made a significant increase in the amplitude of spreading depolarization in cortical and hippocampal tissues relative to control but did not change the duration significantly in each of the tissues. No significant difference was found in the effects of spreading depolarization on the electrophysiological properties of the CA1 pyramidal neurons between nortriptyline and control groups. Conclusions: The stimulating effect of nortriptyline on spreading depolarization is probably related to the augmentation of extracellular potassium collection in the cortex and hippocampus due to inhibition of astrocytic potassium scavenging function. This change can make more neurons prone to depolarization and increase the overall amplitude of spreading depolarization waves. Further studies should assess the effect of enhancing the clearance function of astrocyte-specific inwardly rectifying potassium channels, Kir4.1, or preventing other factors contributing to spreading depolarization on control of the process.
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    A Theoretical Framework to Explain the Superior Cognitive Competence in Humans: A Role for the Division of Labour in the Brain
    (Brieflands, 2017-01-31) Farshad Nemati
    Parallel mathematical descriptions of behavioral structures across species are not necessarily associated with parallel cognitive outcomes. The present discussion provides an analysis of the mechanisms that might be involved in generating such superficial parallel behaviours and sketches a theoretical framework to outline a possible way of understanding cognitive superiority in humans as a qualitative difference. Piaget’s version of recapitulation theory is the focus of this study, which will be presented in three main sections: first a “thought experiment” will demonstrate that Piaget’s version of recapitulation leads to a logical difficulty in explaining cognitive outcomes based on parallel behaviors across species. Then, examples of different brain areas that might be involved in generating such superficial parallel structures in spatial navigation will be discussed and finally a theoretical framework will be proposed to demonstrate how a redirection from Piaget’s focus on the behaviour as the “motor of evolution” to a consideration of the division of labour in the brain would potentially explain the superior cognitive outcomes in humans based on the abstraction of computational patterns generated by neuronal firing in relevant brain areas.
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    Cerebral Aspergillosis in an Immunocompetent Patient: A Case Report
    (Brieflands, 2016-04-01) Mehrnaz Rasoolinejad; Mahbobeh Hajiabdolbaghi; Seyed Ali Dehghan Manshadi; Farid Azmoudeh Ardalan; Pardis Moradnejad; Neda Alijani
    Introduction: Aspergillus is a fungus found in the environment. In an immunecompetent person, inhalation of spores may cause localized infection. In immune compromised patients, these fungi can cause life-threatening invasive infections. Invasive aspergillosis has a poor prognosis. Case Presentation: We describe a case of cerebral aspergillosis in an immunecompetent patient. A 29-year-old woman was admitted with seizures and headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain showed two masses one mass in the left frontal lobe and one in parietal lobe. Excisional biopsies showed granulomatous reactions, mixed inflammatory infiltration, fibrosis, and necropurulent material mixed with fungal hyphae featuring acute-angle branching and septation, which was compatible with aspergillosis. Amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 mg/kg IV daily) was begun. The results of testing for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) were negative. The patient had two subsequent recurrences, and surgery and medical treatments were prescribed. Presently, after two years of follow-up, she has no symptoms and her MRI is normal. Conclusions: Most cases of invasive aspergillosis show that this organism is pathogenic in immunocompromised patients; however, some case reports show that invasive aspergillosis may not be so rare in immunocompetent patients. In these patients, virulent and drug-resistant forms of aspergillus may be responsible for the disease, and treatment with antifungal agents is often ineffective, so that surgical excision is required.
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    Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Approach for Surgical Treatment of Growth Hormone Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: Endocrinological Outcome in 49 Patients Based on 2010 Consensus Criteria for Remission - Preliminary Results
    (Brieflands, 2017-07-31) Mohammad Taghvaei; Seyed Mousa Sadrehosseini; Seyed Mojtaba Miri; Mehdi Zeinalizadeh
    Background: Nowadays, the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach is the initial option for resection of all pituitary adenomas. The current study reported the experience with endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery remission rates using the 2010 consensus criteria, predictors of remission, and the associated complications. Methods: A prospectively collected database of 49 patients with acromegaly who underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery was analyzed. Tumors were classified according to size, as well as the Knosp and the Hardy-Wilson classifications. Endocrinological remission was defined as normal insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I level and either a suppressed growth hormone (GH) level < 0.4 ng/mL during an oral glucose tolerance test, or a random GH level < 1.0 ng/mL at least 3 months after the surgery. The extent of resection was evaluated on postoperative contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Biochemical remission was achieved in 7 of 9 (77.8%) microadenoma and 28 of 40 (70%) macroadenoma. The total remission rate was 71.4% and gross total resection was achieved in 45 of 49 (91.8%) patients. Tumor size, age, gender, history of prior surgery, suprasellar extension, and sphenoid sinus invasion were not associated with remission rate. Preoperative variables predictive of remission included the Knosp score (P = 0.041) and GH levels (P = 0.047). Two patients (4.1%) experienced postoperative pan hypopituitarism, and permanent DI was observed in 3 (6.1%) patients. One patient (2%) had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks treated with serial lumbar punctures. The median follow-up period was 25.45 months; ranged from 3 to 49. Conclusions: Endoscopic transsphenoidal adenoma resection leads to a high rate of endocrinological remission in patients with low acromegaly complication. Patients with high preoperative GH levels and the Knosp scores are less likely to achieve remission.