Journal of Health Reports and Technology

In Collaboration with Department of Public Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences


Journal of Health Reports and Technology is a high-quality scientific source whose content is devoted to the particular compilation of the latest worldwide and interdisciplinary approaches and findings including original manuscripts, meta-analyses, and reviews, health economic papers especially nutrition, public health, and life sciences.

JHRT is a scholarly, multidisciplinary, open access, peer-reviewed journal that considers articles on:

  • Nutrition and Health
  • Epidemiology of Communicable and Non-communicable Diseases
  • Environmental Health Hazards
  • Occupational Health
  • Public Health Interventions and Health Promotion
  • Health Economics
  • Other disciplines are relevant to Public Health.


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 220
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    Evaluation of the Prevalence of Dental Anomalies Among Children Through Panoramic Radiographs for Five Years in Ahvaz, Iran
    (Brieflands, 2024-04-30) Maryam Roayaei Ardakani; Masoumeh Khataminia; Saeide Rahimi
    Background: Malocclusions, cosmetic problems, some problems linked to tooth extraction and root canal treatment, and other diseases of the mouth and teeth can occur as a result of dental anomalies (DAs). Objectives: The present research was conducted to determine the prevalence of DAs through panoramic radiographs of children in Ahvaz, Iran, in five years (2018 - 2022). Methods: In this descriptive-cross-sectional study, 1000 panoramic radiographs were selected from the archives of the Radiology Department of Ahvaz Dental School and other radiology centers of the city related to children in the age group of 5 - 12 years. A pediatric dental assistant and a pediatric dental specialist evaluated them for the presence of DAs based on Lam's (2014) criteria and definitions. The frequency of DAs was reported based on numbers and percentages. Finally, the raw results were analyzed using the chi-square test and Student's t-test at the significance level of α = 0.05 by SPSS software version 25. Results: The results showed that only 150 (15%) patients had at least one DA and 850 (85%) had no DAs. Most DAs were related to dental missing (4.2%), dental transposition (2.9%), and ectopic growth (2.2%). The frequency of dental missing (71.4% vs. 28.6%) and dental transposition (72.4% vs. 27.6%) in boys were significantly higher than in girls. The frequency of DAs missing teeth in the lower jaw (61.9%) was significantly more than in the upper jaw (38.1%). Conclusions: Anomalies of missing teeth, transposition, and ectopic growths are among the most common anomalies in Ahvaz children, but the anomalies of microdontia, tooth displacement, dens evaginates, and dentinogenesis imperfect were rare DAs among them. As the prevalence of DAs in Ahvaz children is estimated to be high, early diagnosis and treatment of this complication are suggested as a means to prevent complications.
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    Flourishing: A Cross-Sectional Study on Academic Achievement in the Students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran
    (Brieflands, 2020-07-19) Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh; Mojtaba Limoee; Seyyed Nasrollah Hosseini; Farzaneh Solaimanizadeh; Nafiseh Mirzaei-Alavijeh; Abdollah Saadatfar; Samira Sadeghpour; Kajal Barati; Farzad Jalilian
    Background: Flourishing is a psychological construct that refers to the type of living together with permanent happiness in human functions. Individuals with high levels of flourishing are aware of their abilities, keen on progress, and considered beneficial community members. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the flourishing status and its association with academic achievement in the students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional, descriptive-analytical study was conducted on 295 students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences in 2018. The students were selected via simple random sampling with proportional probability to size. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using independent t-test, one-way ANOVA and Pearson’s correlation-coefficient at the significance of 95%. Results: The mean age of the students was 22.92 ± 2.47 years (range: 18 - 30 years). The mean score of flourishing was 39.93 ± 8.73 (score range: 8 - 56), which indicated that the participants received 71.3% of the maximum score of flourishing. In addition, the score of flourishing was significantly higher in the female students compared to the males (P = 0.046) and had a positive, significant correlation with academic achievement (r = 0.197; P = 0.002). Conclusions: Considering the more favorable status of flourishing in the female students, it is recommended that educational programs be developed and implemented for the promotion of flourishing by focusing on male students.
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    Effects of Schema Therapy for Children and Adolescents on the Externalizing Behaviors of the Adolescents Referred to the Counseling Centers in Ahvaz, Iran
    (Brieflands, 2021-10-31) Afaf Karimipour; Parviz Asgari; Behnam Makvandi; Reza Johari Fard
    Background: Internalizing and externalizing behaviors often emerge during adolescence. Early interventions could prevent severe or chronic mental health issues such as depression, suicidal tendencies, crime, and social harm, thereby potentially mitigating their adverse consequences. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the effects of schema therapy for children and adolescents (ST-CA) on the externalizing behaviors of the adolescents referred to the counseling centers in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted with a pretest-posttest design and a control group. The sample population included adolescents aged 12 - 14 years with behavioral, educational, and mood problems who were referred to the counseling centers in Ahvaz, Iran in 2020. In total, 30 adolescents were selected via convenience sampling and randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control (15 per each). The experimental group received 14 sessions of ST-CA (120-minute weekly sessions). Data were collected using the child behavior checklist. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 26.0. Results: In the experimental group, the mean scores of externalizing behaviors at the pretest and posttest were 70.52 ± 6.11 and 58.27 ± 4.80, respectively. The mean score of aggression in the experimental and control groups at the posttest was 57.60 ± 3.83 and 64.20 ± 7.41, respectively. The mean score of rule-breaking in the experimental and control groups at the posttest was 55.53 ± 6.10 and 61.07 ± 7.63, respectively. ST-CA could significantly alleviate the externalizing behaviors of the subjects, such as aggression and rule-breaking (P < 0.001). Conclusions: According to the results, ST-CA could effectively decrease externalizing behaviors. Therefore, this approach should be incorporated into the interventions designed for these cases. Our findings could lay the groundwork for further investigation in this regard.
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    The Effect of Home-Based Pulmonary Rehabilitation on Asthmatic Pediatric Quality of Life
    (Brieflands, 2023-07-31) Raziyeh Mazroei; Elnaz Monemi Gohari; Maede Ghadermazi; Niku Latifi; Hamid Hojjati; Nafiseh Hekmati Pour
    Background: Children with asthma have a low quality of life because they cannot adequately be physically active. Asthmatic children can benefit from home-based pulmonary rehabilitation because it is available, inexpensive, and easy to use. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the effect of home-based pulmonary rehabilitation on the quality of life of children with asthma. Methods: This experimental study was conducted in 2022 on 60 asthmatic children in Gorgan, Iran, with two intervention and control groups by convenient method. Children in the intervention group received eight pulmonary rehabilitation sessions at home after randomly assigning the participants to two intervention (30-person) and control (30-person) groups. The data collection tools included a demographic characteristic form and a pediatric quality of life questionnaire (PedsQl). Results: The mean quality of life before the intervention was 54.6 ± 7.13 in the intervention and 53.76 ± 7.12 in the control group, and the independent t-test did not show a significant difference between the two groups. The mean quality of life after the intervention increased to 59.9 ± 7.69 in the intervention and 55.3 ± 7.36 in the control group, and the independent t-test showed a significant difference between the two groups (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Based on the results, home-based pulmonary rehabilitation effectively improved the asthmatic pediatric quality of life. Therefore, the healthcare system should consider home-based pulmonary rehabilitation as part of the treatment protocol.
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    The Modern Information Technology (IT) in Healthcare: An African Perspective
    (Brieflands, 2022-01-31) Abdullahi Binta Suleiman; Faisal Muhammad
    Context: In terms of healthcare service provision, availability and adequacy, Africa is left behind. This is as a result of Africans belief in traditional, herbal and superstitious medical and healthcare service available in each and every distinct community which differs from one community to another in rural villages of Africa. In recent times IT evolution in medical and healthcare has made a tremendous impact not only in Africa but all over the world. This study aimed at reviewing the positive effects of modern IT in the provision of healthcare services in Africa. Evidence Acquisition: A review of several research articles was conducted from March to June, 2020 to find out how modern information technology (IT) has transformed lives in healthcare services provisions and availability in African countries. Internet search through Google was used to collect relevant information from published research articles and other related reports. All published articles and reports mainly concern with implementation of IT in healthcare facilities and provisions specifically in regional Africa, rural communities and cities in African countries were included. However the socio-demographic factors like gender, age, profession were not considered in this review. Results: According to previous reports, pioneering strategies like digital health are considered necessary to ensure accomplishment of the striving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) in Africa being one of most significant agenda of sustainable development goals (SDG) and World Health Organization (WHO). Africa as a continent quite a number of modern technological equipment’s are installed and used. The digital aided detection of tuberculosis by chest x-ray is employed in Zambia, South Africa and the Gambia. Use of mHealth/telemedicine solutions in order to reduce outbreaks in Tanzania, Rapid Diagnostic tests (RDT) incorporated in cloud-based m-Health Smart reader are deployed in Kenya, Tanzania, and Ghana, while Smartphone-powered, cloud-enabled handy convenient electrocardiograph (ECG) are established in Uganda and Malawi. Conclusions: The findings of this study clearly shows the positive impact of information technology (IT) such as application and use of wireless sensor networks and other electronic devices in health care service delivery, diagnosing and determination of infectious diseases such as corona virus and other pathogens affecting mankind.
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    Support and Practice of Smoke-Free Eating Places in Sarawak, Malaysia: A Structural Path Analysis
    (Brieflands, 2022-07-31) Md Mizanur Rahman; Mohd Taha Arif; Abdul Rahim Abdullah
    Background: Smoke-free eating places are effective in reducing exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS). Eateries should comply with implementing smoke-free eating-places under the Control of Tobacco Products Regulations 2018 in all open-air eating-places to reduce tobacco consumption to achieve the plan of having Malaysia free of tobacco by 2045. Objectives: To determine the impact of perceived knowledge on tobacco control law and SHS and attitude to support and practice smoke-free eating-places. Methods: A total of 620 respondents participated in this cross-sectional study. The eating-places were selected randomly from 5 administrative divisions of Sarawak. Data on perceived tobacco control law, knowledge of the effects of SHS on health and environment, attitude and support towards smoke-free eating-places, and current smoke-free eating-places were collected by face-to-face interview using a structured questionnaire. A partial least squares model was developed to examine the impact of knowledge, attitude, and support towards the smoke-free eating-places with the current practice of smoke-free eating-places. WarpPLS version 7.0 was used to examine the structural path and to test the hypothesis. Results: The structural path analysis revealed that perceived knowledge of tobacco control law had no impact on practicing smoke-free eating-places (P > 0.05). However, the knowledge of the health and environmental effects of SHS had direct and indirect effects on attitude and support for smoke-free eating-places (P < 0.001). In addition, attitude towards smoke-free eating-places had a significant mediating effect on practicing smoke-free eating-places (P < 0.001). Besides that, supporting smoke-free eating-places had a significant direct impact on the practice of smoke-free eating-places (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Legislation and implementation of smoke-free eating-places along with the antismoking program and education efforts could support the cessation of tobacco use in all public places, including all eateries.
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    Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Related to Diet and Body Composition: A Case Control Study
    (Brieflands, 2016-12-31) Yahya Pasdar; Mitra Darbandi; Amir Bagheri; Parisa Niazi; Soraya Siabani; Seyed Mostafa Nachvak
    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) has a common pathogenic background and shares many risk factors such as hypertension, metabolic syndrome and obesity. This study aimed to determine the relationship between dietary factors and body composition in NAFLD suffering patients. A case-control study designed, 250 patients (n = 125 in each group) were studied. Data was collected using a Body Impedance Analyzer and FFQ questionnaires. The data were analyzed in Stata-11 using the Mann-Whitney test, a t-test, and logistic regression. The Mean BMI was 30.41 ± 5.7 and 26.41 ± 3.8 kg/m2 in the case and control groups, respectively (p = 0.001). In patients with NAFLD, 44.7% showed a BMI over 30 (obese), and in the control group it was 12.5%. The amount of protein intake in the case and control groups was 87.74 ± 52.10 and 97.007 ± 75.55 g/d (P = 0.02), respectively. Fiber intake was 23.12 ± 14.57 g/d in the case group and 25.74 ± 34.71 g/d in the control group (P = 0.3). Vitamin E intake in 69.7% of NAFLD and 74.78% of control group was lower than the RDA recommended level. The study showed that NAFLD subjects have a higher BMI than healthy individuals. Obesity and the low intake of vitamin E, protein, and fiber can be a predicting factor of the incidence or progression of fatty liver.
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    Disclosure Experiences and Challenges Among Children and Adolescents Living with HIV/AIDS in Nigeria-A Review of the Literature
    (Brieflands, 2021-10-31) Nzube Pauline Okolo-Francis; Uyinonijesu Diamond Victor-Ogie; Abdulmumin Ibrahim; Amos Abimbola Oladunni; Goodness Ogeyi Odey; Uyioghosa Benedo Osadolor; Yusuff Adebayo Adebisi
    Context: Disclosure of HIV positive infection status in children and Adolescents is multifaceted and should take into consideration their age, psychosocial maturity, cultural and clinical context. This study was conducted to examine disclosure experiences and challenges among children and ALWHA in Nigeria. Evidence Acquisition: We conducted narrative review of relevant literatures by searching PubMed, Google scholar and Medscape using predetermined keywords. Results: Findings are presented under themes of process of disclosure and age of disclosure, reasons and challenges of disclosure, reactions and responses to disclosure, consistent with various authors. This study shows that the mean age and reasons for HIV positive status disclosure are variable. Disclosure was mostly executed at home and mostly carried out by parents or caregivers of HIV-infected children. Reactions of children and ALWHA upon disclosure was mainly negative and ranged from feeling of anger to expression of shock to feeling of sadness and to crying. Barriers to HIV-positive status disclosure among caregivers were perceived sense immaturity and age of the child, fear of stigma, fear of child’s inability to cope, fear of blaming the parents and refusal to take antiretroviral (ARV) drugs. While caregivers highlighted several factors that affect disclosure of HIV status to children and adolescents, this study reveals both positive and negative impact on their emotions. Conclusions: It is of note that approach to disclosure is critical, therefore caregivers and healthcare workers should be properly trained and supported with resources required to effectively carry out disclosure. There is need for continuous research to understand and develop age and culture specific approaches to disclosure in children and adolescents in Nigeria.
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    The Impact of Business Attitude on Entrepreneurial Behavior in Postgraduate Students: A Cross-sectional Study During the COVID-19 Pandemic
    (Brieflands, 2022-01-31) Sima Rafiei; Ahad Alizadeh; Leyla Aziziani; Faeze Homaei Borojeni; Fateme Vahdati; Zahra Nejatifar
    Background: Entrepreneurship and business behavior are of great significance in developing countries, such as Iran, due to the unemployment crisis. Today's economic status and population composition have propelled everyone to find effective solutions in the economic arena. Therefore, appropriate educational models for students and programs to encourage students to turn to entrepreneurship and create new businesses are vital. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the impact of business attitude on entrepreneurial behavior in postgraduate students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on the postgraduate students of Qazvin University of Medical Sciences in 2021. Data were collected using the standard questionnaires of Aution et al. and Leon Dice Zamptakis and Vasilis Mustakis. Data analysis was performed in the R software version 4.0.4 using Spearman’s or Pearson’s correlation-coefficient and multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA). Results: The mean age of the participants was 28.17 ± 6.297 years. Pearson’s correlation-coefficient indicated a significant, inverse correlation between age and attitudes toward competitiveness and entrepreneurial culture (r = -0.210; P = 0.002 and r = -0.177; P = 0.01, respectively). In addition, the results of multiple linear regression analysis showed that the attitude to business had a significant, inverse effect on entrepreneurial behavior (r = -0.259; P < 0.001). Conclusions: According to the results, students' unpreparedness for self-employment activities highlights the need for changing the attitude of postgraduate students in this regard by explaining the prevalence of the COVID-19. Due to the outbreak of the disease, numerous startups and personal businesses were shut down. Therefore, students are mostly reluctant to become involved in entrepreneurial activities despite their business attitude.
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    Achievement Motivation: A Case Study of the Students of Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Iran
    (Brieflands, 2021-12-07) Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh; Cyrus Jalili; Habibolah Khazaie; Saba Shahsavari; Negar Karimi; Seyyed Nasrollah Hosseini; Lida Memar Eftekhary; Farzad Jalilian
    Background: Motivation is defined as the development of an individual’s desire to succeed and participate in the activities in which success depends on personal effort and ability. Objectives: The present study aimed to evaluate the status of achievement motivation in university students. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 182 medical, dentistry, and pharmacology students at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences (KUMS), Iran in 2018. The participants were selected via simple random sampling with a probability appropriate to the selected sample size. Data were collected using a self-report questionnaire. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 16 using chi-square and t-test at the significance level of 95%. Results: The mean age of the participants was 21.14 ± 1.68 years (age range: 19 - 25 years). The mean score of achievement motivation was 77.64 ± 7.35, which indicated that the participants obtained 66.93% of the maximum score. In addition, 89.5% and 10.5% of the students had moderate and favorable achievement motivation, respectively. Achievement motivation was significantly correlated with age (P = 0.031), male gender (P = 0.022), and maternal education level (P = 0.018). Conclusions: According to the results, the achievement motivation of the majority of the KUMS students was moderate. Therefore, proper planning is required to improve the achievement motivation of these students.
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    Household Medicines Disposal Practices in Maiduguri, North-Eastern Nigeria
    (Brieflands, 2019-11-11) Roland Nnaemeka Okoro; Emmanuel Peter
    Background: Availability and prompt access to medications are crucial for effective healthcare delivery, but the quantity of pharmaceutical waste generated from unwanted/unused and expired medications is of great concern globally. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the medicines disposal knowledge, attitudes and practice of the residents of Maiduguri metropolis, northeastern Nigeria. Methods: This cross-sectional, population-based survey was done using a pre-validated questionnaire, during a one-month (November) period of 2018. Conveniently selected residents of the 22 units or wards of the metropolis completed the survey instrument. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) version 21. The relationship between variables and demographics of the study population was investigated using the chi-square test. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: About 35.0% of the participants kept unused/unwanted medicines at home for future use/until expiration, followed by giving them to friends and relatives (30.2%). More than one-half (59.7%) of the study population got rid of expired medicine through household garbage, while a few (1.3%) gave them to friends/relatives and buried in the ground. There were relationships between participants’ gender, age, marital status, educational status and unused/unwanted medicine disposal practices. Similarly, there were relationships between participants’ gender, age, marital status and expired medicines disposal practices. Most (80.0%) of the study population knew the harmful impact of inappropriate discarding of expired and unused/unwanted medicines to public well-being and the environment. Conclusions: This study showed that the most common methods of disposal of unused/unwanted and expired medicine were keeping them for future use or until expiration, and throwing them in the household garbage respectively. The results have shown that a sizeable proportion of the participants were aware of the negative impact of improper disposal of medicines, although appropriate discarding behaviors were lacking, making it a priority for concerned authorities in our country to formulate and implement guidelines to protect public health and environment.
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    Association of the Meta-Emotion Structure with the Dimensions of Emerging Adulthood Identity Mediated by Mental Health in University Students
    (Brieflands, 2022-01-31) Camelia Sadati; Hooman Namvar; Bita Nasrolahi
    Background: Meta-emotion is a crucial developmental task to maintain internal balance, provide compatible relations, and improve mental health. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the association of the meta-emotion structure with the dimensions of emerging adulthood identity mediated by mental health in university students. Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was conducted on male and female university students aged 18 - 25 years who were selected from the public universities of Tehran, Iran during 2020 - 2021. The research sample consisted of 178 participants selected via convenience, quota, and nonrandom sampling. Data were collected using Arnett’s inventory of the dimensions of emerging adulthood (IDEA), Goldberg’s general health questionnaire-12 (GHQ-12), and Mitmansgruber’s Meta-Emotion scale (MES). Data analysis was performed using structural equation modeling in the SmartPLS-3 software. Results: The meta-emotion structure had a significant negative association with possibilities/optimism (r = -0.14) and significant positive associations with the components of feeling in-between, identity explorations, self-focus, and possibilities/optimism. Mental health had a negative association with possibilities/optimism (r = -0.17) and positive associations with the other four identity dimensions. In terms of the direct influence coefficients, the meta-emotion structure had a direct and significant influence only on mental health (r = 0.68). Furthermore, mental health had a direct effect only on instability/negativity. Among the identity dimensions of emerging adulthood, mental health had a mediating role only for instability/negativity (β = 0.21; t = 3.23). Conclusions: According to the results and considering the structure of meta-emotion and mental health as an influential factor in characteristics such as instability/negativity among identity dimensions, emphasizing mental health as a mediating factor for the association between meta-emotion and components such as instability/negativity could help acquire a better understanding of the association between these variables.
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    A Predictive Model of Spiritual Well-being Based on Belief in a Just World Mediated by the Positive and Negative Affects in University Students
    (Brieflands, 2021-10-31) Fatemeh Zamani Amir; Hayedeh Saberi; Simin Bashardoust
    Background: Spiritual well-being is crucial in human health and reduces anxiety and depression. Therefore, identifying its underlying variables can improve individuals’ health. Objectives: This study aimed to predict a model of spiritual well-being based on belief in a just world mediated by positive and negative effects in university students of Tehran. Methods: This was a descriptive correlation study performed through path analysis. The statistical population consisted of students studying at different universities of Tehran during 2020 - 2021. The research sample comprised 301 university students (199 female and 102 male). The participants completed the Spiritual Well-Being Scale, Belief in a Just World Scale, and Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (PANAS). The model was evaluated using path analysis in AMOS 24.0. Results: The results showed that the path coefficient between positive affect and spiritual well-being was positive and significant, and the path coefficient between negative affect and spiritual well-being was negative and significant (P < 0.001). The total path coefficient between the belief in a just world (BJW) and spiritual well-being was positive and significant, and the path coefficient between the belief in an unjust world (BUW) and spiritual well-being was negative and significant (P < 0.001). Furthermore, there was a significant positive indirect path coefficient between BJW and spiritual well-being (P < 0.001). Accordingly, the positive and negative affects played positive mediating roles between BJW and spiritual well-being. Conclusions: Based on the findings of the present study, it can be concluded that BJW, positive effects, and strengthening them can enhance the level of spiritual well-being and reduce the students’ negative effect, anxiety, and depression levels.
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    Stability of Iodine in Iodized Salt Against Heat, Light and Humidity
    (Brieflands, 2020-01-13) Seyedeh Hoorieh Fallah; Asieh Khalilpour; Abdoliman Amouei; Mojgan Rezapour; Hajar Tabarinia
    Background: Iodine has undeniable effects on human in all stages of life and its deficiency during fetal stages causes mental retardation, which incurs huge costs for treatment and care. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of heat, humidity and light on the iodine content in iodized salt. Methods: In this analytical-descriptive study, five brands of refined iodized salts were randomly selected from supermarkets in Babol City. All tests were performed in the Chemistry Laboratory of Paramedical School in Babol University of Medical Sciences. In the current study, the samples were kept for three months under different conditions of humidity, without humidity, light, darkness, and temperatures of 37°C, refrigerator and ambient. The iodine amount of samples was tested every 15 days using titration method based on Britain Pharmacopoeia. Data were analyzed with ANOVA in SPSS. Results: The results showed that iodine was reduced in all samples of refined salts: 9.69 ± 1.3 for refrigerator temperature with humidity, 8.34 ± 1.4 for refrigerator temperature without humidity, 8.85 ± 1.2 for 37°C with humidity, 7.80 ± 1.4 for 37°C without humidity, 13.96 ± 1.3 for ambient temperature with light and humidity, 9.61 ± 1.5 for ambient temperature with light and without humidity, 8.64 ± 1.1 for ambient temperature with humidity in darkness, and 5.41 ± 1.2 mg/L for ambient temperature without humidity in darkness. Conclusions: The results indicated that ambient temperature, darkness and non-humidity were the best conditions for keeping iodized salt.
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    Psychometric Properties of the Persian Version of the Observable Social Cognition Rating Scale (OSCARS)
    (Brieflands, 2021-07-31) Arezoo Paliziyan; Mahnaz Mehrabizadehonarmand; Seyed Esmael Hashemi; Iran Davoudi
    Background: Social interactions require social cognition. Social cognition and its shortcomings could be assessed by questionnaires and interviews. Objectives: The present study aimed to examine the psychometric properties of the Persian versions of the Observable Social Cognition Rating scale (OSCARS) in students. Methods: This correlational study was conducted on 250 male and female students at the high schools of Dezfoul, Iran during 2019 - 2020. The participants were selected via multistage random sampling. The reliability, congruent validity, and concurrent validity of the Persian version of the OSCARS were evaluated using the teacher’s form of the OSCARS and the cognitive abilities questionnaire. The validity of the OSCARS was measured by confirmatory factor analysis, and its congruent validity and reliability were measured using the Cronbach’s alpha and split-half method. Results: The Cronbach’s alpha value of the entire scale, teacher’s form, and cognitive abilities questionnaire was 0.65, 0.60, and 0.85, respectively. The split-half coefficient for the entire scale was estimated at 0.60, and the correlation between the OSCARS and the teacher’s form was 0.35. Moreover, the correlation between the OSCARS and cognitive abilities questionnaire with the social cognition subscale was 0.15 and 0.13, respectively. The results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated the excellent fitness of the OSCARS structure (RMSEA = 0.02). Conclusions: According to the results, the Persian version of the OSCARS has good reliability and validity.
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    In Search of the True Prevalence of COVID-19 in Africa: Time to Involve More Stakeholders
    (Brieflands, 2021-10-31) Olayinka Ilesanmi; Aanuoluwapo Afolabi
    This article does not have an abstract.
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    The Mediating Role of Self-compassion in the Correlation Between Perceived Social Support and Psychosomatic Symptoms Among Students with Gender as the Moderator
    (Brieflands, 2022-02-16) Zahra Feizollahi; Hassan Asadzadeh; Saeed Bakhtiarpour; Noorali Farrokhi
    Background: Psychosomatic symptoms manifest in different stages of human life. Students are vulnerable to the negative impact of these symptoms on their academic success and the possible consequences, such as illegal drug use and suicide attempts. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the mediating role of self-compassion in the correlation between perceived social support and psychosomatic symptoms among university students. Methods: This descriptive-correlational study was conducted on the students of the Islamic Azad University of Ahvaz in the academic year 2020 - 2021. The sample population included 372 students (178 males and 194 females) who were selected via simple random sampling. Data were collected using the medical outcomes study-social support survey, Neff’s self-compassion scale (short-form), and DSM-5 somatic symptoms experiences questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using structural equation modeling. Results: A significant, negative correlation was observed between perceived social support and psychosomatic symptoms (β = -0.14; P = 0.03), and a significant, positive correlation was observed between perceived social support and self-compassion (β = 0.34; P = 0.001). Furthermore, a significant, negative correlation was denoted between self-compassion and psychosomatic symptoms (β = -0.52; P = 0.001). Self-compassion slightly mediated the correlation between perceived social support and psychosomatic symptoms (β = -0.19; P = 0.001), while gender did not moderate this mediating model. Conclusions: According to the results, the modified model had a good fit. Therefore, self-compassion and perceived social support affected psychosomatic symptoms in the university students.
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    The Attitudes toward Female Genital Mutilation: A Survey among the Residents of Uramanat Region, Iran
    (Brieflands, 2021-01-31) Osman Mahmoudi; Elham Hosseini
    Background: Female genital mutilation (FGM) refers to the removal of a part or the entire female genital organ, which is often performed by a local individual using a blade without any anesthetics. FGM is concentrated in some African countries, Asia, and the Middle East. Objective: The present study was conducted in Iran, where FGM is a religious practice and not considered a crime, aiming to evaluate the information, beliefs, and understanding of the phenomenon among the residents of Uramanat (Javanrood, Ravansar, Salas, and Paveh cities) and compare the differences in the responses of the residents. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed among the Uramanat residents of Kermanshah province, Iran. Data were collected on the age, marital status, attitude, and knowledge of FGM. Results: The survey was implemented among 250 residents of the Uramanat region, and 212 questionnaires (82.7%) were returned by 96 women (47%) and 109 men (54%). Notably, 66.8% of the female participants had been circumcised. The findings indicated that 81.04% of the male residents and 88.5% of the female residents believed that FGM is a religious practice. Only 8.1% of the female residents compared to 18.7% of the male residents considered FGM to be illegal. Although 78.8% of the male participants stated that their spouse was circumcised, the majority of the men (57.8%) preferred a wife with a healthy female genitalia. Conclusions: According to the results, there are numerous and confusing perspectives regarding FGM. The lack of specific rules and knowledge about the psychological, sexual, and physical effects of FGM lead to the continuation of this practice. Therefore, raising the awareness of various social groups about FGM and its complications could put an end to this inhuman issue.
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    Association Between Cortical Thickness and Childhood Body Mass Index: Role of Race and Income
    (Brieflands, 2020-11-25) Shervin Assari
    Background: There is mixed literature on the association between cerebral cortex morphometry and body mass index (BMI), with only some but not all studies documenting an inverse association between cortical thickness (CT) and BMI. As the association between CT and BMI is inconsistent in the literature, we propose that racial and socioeconomic status (SES) differences may exist in this regard. Objectives: We borrowed the adolescent brain cognitive development (ABCD) data to investigate racial and SES differences in CT and childhood BMI associations. Methods: This cross-sectional study included 10,185 children between ages 9 and 10. Mixed-effects regression was used to analyze the data. The independent variable was CT measured using structural MRI. The dependent variable was BMI treated as a continuous variable. Covariates included ethnicity, sex, age, family structure, parental education, and intracranial volume. Race (White, Black, Asian, and Other/mixed) and household income levels (< 50 k, 50 - 100 k, and 100 + k) were the effect modifiers. Results: High CT was predictive of lower BMI (b for main effect of CT on BMI = -3.134; P < 0.001). However, the inverse association between CT and BMI was stronger in Black than White (b for interaction between race and CT = -2.39; P = 0.01255), and low-income than high-income children (b for interaction between income 50 - 100 k = 1.86; P = 0.02906; for interaction between income 100 + k b = 3.77; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that although high CT is associated with lower BMI in children, this association varies across racial and SES groups. More research is needed on obesogenic environments’ role in altering the salience of cerebral cortex morphometry as a risk factor for high BMI.
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    Role of Organizational Silence in the Professional Performance of Frontline Staff in the Hospital Structure: A Path Analysis
    (Brieflands, 2022-04-30) Omid Khosravizadeh; Bahman Ahadinezhad; Saeed Shahsavari; Maryam Ghiasvand; Milad Mehri
    Background: Performance is the primary concern of every organizational manager, and achieving higher performance is a significant goal of every organization. Organizational silence may adversely affect organizational performance. Healthcare centers should pay special attention to this issue due to their different job descriptions and environments compared to other sectors. Objectives: The present study aimed to investigate the effect of organizational silence and its dimensions on the professional performance of health workers in the medical centers in Qazvin province, Iran in 2020. Methods: This was a descriptive-analytical study in terms of objective and a cross-sectional study in terms of design. The study was conducted in the medical centers affiliated to Qazvin University of Medical Sciences. In total, 365 questionnaires were distributed to select a sample of the healthcare workers from the selected centers in proportion to the total number of the staff. Data analysis was performed in SPSS version 22 using path analysis at the significance level of 0.05. Results: A significant, inverse (negative) correlation was observed between organizational silence and the professional performance of the staff (P < 0.05). Among various dimensions of organizational silence, the highest and lowest mean scores belonged to acquiescent silence (15.633 ± 4.291) and altruistic silence (12.180 ± 3.719), respectively. As for the dimensions of professional performance, the highest and lowest mean scores belonged to evaluation (29.675 ± 6.071) and help (15.087 ± 3.206), respectively. Conclusions: Based on the findings, it is recommended that the organizational atmosphere of the medical centers be improved so that the healthcare workers could provide feedback without concerns of being criticized by colleagues and superiors and the fear of consequences.