Modern Care Journal

In Collaboration with Birjand Nursing and Midwifery Faculty, Birjand University of Medical Sciences


Modern Care is the scientific quarterly journal of the Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery at Birjand University of Medical Sciences. It aims at developing and elevating knowledge and original research in medical sciences, especially in nursing and midwifery.

The journal publishes original, Systematic Review, Meta-analysis, Cohort studies, Experimental studies, Case-control studies, clinical and translational articles and reviews in the field of modern care and topics of interest include, but not limited to:

  • Critical Care
  • Chronic Diseases Care
  • Geriatrics
  • Child and Maternity Care
  • Psychiatric
  • Complementary and Alternative Medicine
  • Midwifery and Obstetrics
  • Management and Leadership in Healthcare Services
  • Community and Health Education
  • Theory Development in Nursing and Healthcare

Peer Review Policy:

1) Double-Blind Peer Review System

2) Open Peer Review (since Aug 2019), Show List of All Published Reviewers' Comments


Recent Submissions

Now showing 1 - 20 of 294
  • Item
    Immunity against rubella in premarital women five years after the nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign in Birjand
    (Brieflands, 2012-12-21) Mohammad Hasan Namaei
    Background and Aim: In 2003, a vaccination campaign was conducted to immunize individuals aged 5 -25 years old against rubella infection. The present study aimed investigate the extent of which premarital women were immune against rubella five years after the campaignhad started. Materials and Methods: This descriptive-analytic study evaluated women who had been vaccinated during the national rubella vaccination campaign (2003). The anti rubella antibody (IgG) titer from among the women referred to provincial health office in Birjand,248 were randomly selectedand their anti-rubella antibody (IgG) titer was measured using ELISA method. The antibody titer above 10 IU/ml was considered as protective. Results: Mean age of the participants was 21.7?4 years ranging from 14 to 30 years. Most of them (68.7%) were living in urban areas. The majority of them (51.2%) were school or university students Only one participant's antibody titer against rubella virus was less than 10 IU/ml. Mean antibody titer was 99.77?58.8 ranging from 5.2 to 333.5. Conclusion: In light of the 99.7% rate of immunity wrong participant , the risk of "congenital rubella syndrome" in our society seems to be low. However, low titer of antibodies in a small percent of the cases prompts the worry that there will likely to be a reduction in immunity in the years. Thus, it is recommended that the present study be repeated in the following 3 or 4 years.
  • Item
    The Effects of Resilience Training on Mental Health Among Students
    (Brieflands, 2024-02-29) Mohammadreza Raeisoon; Yahya Mohammadi; Mohadese Talaie
    Background: Research indicates that certain demographic groups, including girls, often experience lower-than-average levels of mental well-being. Therefore, it appears that one approach to enhancing mental health is by teaching resilience skills. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the effects of resilience training on the mental health dimensions of sixth-grade female students in Qaynat city during the academic year 2021 - 2022. Methods: The study employed an experimental design with a control group, conducting pre- and post-tests. The statistical population comprised female sixth-grade students from an elementary school in Qaynat City. Thirty female students exhibiting high scores on measures of depression, anxiety, and stress were selected and randomly divided into two experimental groups, with 15 participants in each group. The experimental group underwent resilience training consisting of 8 sessions. The desired variables were measured using Lovibond and Lovibond's Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Scale (DASS). The data were analyzed using SPSS 25 software through independent samples t-tests and paired t-tests. Results: The findings revealed that the resilience training intervention significantly reduced symptoms of depression (F = 11.542), anxiety (F = 13.67), and stress (F = 6.01) in the experimental group (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The results suggest that participation in a resilience training program can improve students' mental health. Therefore, implementing such intervention programs in the form of workshops and establishing counseling and support groups may be beneficial for enhancing students' mental well-being.
  • Item
    Examining the Solution-focused Thinking and Hope Levels of Turkish Midwifery Students During Distance Education: A Cross-sectional Study
    (Brieflands, 2023-04-30) Nurdan Kaya; Handan Guler
    Background: The uncertainty caused by the COVID-19 pandemic has adversely affected the physical and psychosocial health of each individual in the community. Although the psychosocial impact of COVID-19 has been studied in different populations, psychosocial factors (such as solution-focused thinking (SFT) and hope) have not been previously studied in midwifery students. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the SFT and hope levels of midwifery students after distance education applied due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in June 2020 in the Midwifery Department of the Health Sciences Faculty of Ondokuz Mayıs University, Turkey. The research data were collected using a student identification form (SIF), Solution-focused Inventory (SFI), and Dispositional Hope Scale (DHS). The data were analyzed using SPSS version 20. The compliance of the variables to normal distribution was evaluated using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Mean, SD, number and percentage values, t-test, analysis of variance (ANOVA), and Pearson correlation were used in the analysis of the data. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: The average age of students was 20.78 ± 1.97 years. The SFI total score mean was 49.63 ± 5.72, and the mean scores of the subdimension of problem disengagement, goal orientation, and resource activation were 12.97 ± 3.55, 17.68 ± 3.17, and 18.97 ± 3.25, respectively. The mean total score for DHS was 48.53 ± 7.18, and the mean scores of the alternative ways thought and acting thinking subdimensions were 24.75 ± 3.86 and 23.78 ± 3.99, respectively. A high level of positive correlation was found between SFI and DHS (r = 0.432; P < 0.001). Conclusions: Students who have higher SFT have higher levels of hope. For this reason, as future health professionals, an SFT approach that allows midwifery students to cope with mental disorders to serve in extraordinary situations should be added to educational curricula (such as the solution-focused midwifery course).
  • Item
    Resistance Training Improved the Kidney Function of Type 2 Diabetic Patients with the Risk of Nephropathy: A Randomized Control Trial
    (Brieflands, 2022-10-31) Mehrzad Moghadasi; Alireza Ostovar; Azita Eslami
    Background: Despite the preventive role of resistance training (RT) in the progress of type 2 diabetes, its effects on diabetes-related kidney complications are still unknown. Objectives: This study was done to investigate the impacts of RT on kidney function of type 2 diabetic patients with the risk of nephropathy. Methods: Twenty-two middle-aged men with type 2 diabetes (age: 52.8 ± 7.3, body mass index (BMI): 27.4 ± 3.1) were randomly allocated into the control group (CG: n = 12) or resistance training group (RTG: n = 10). Subjects performed a circuit RT program [three times a week, 60 min/session, six exercises, three sets, 8 - 15 repetitions, 50 - 80% one-repetition maximum (1RM)] for eight consecutive weeks. Clinical parameters, including insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and insulin resistance, were measured before and after eight weeks. Results: IGFBP-3 levels significantly increased (47.8%) in CG, while they remained unchanged in the RTG. eGFR levels significantly decreased (16.7%) in the CG but remained unchanged in the RTG. Fasting blood glucose and insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels significantly decreased (16.7% and 27.2%, respectively) in the RTG compared to the CG; however, for fasting insulin, no significant change was observed (8.5%). Conclusions: The results indicated that although RT did not improve the kidney function of the RTG, by improving the glycemic control, it prevented the development of renal dysfunction into diabetic nephropathy, while the renal dysfunction of the CG deteriorated over the training period, probably due to the lack of training intervention. Further studies with a longer training period are required to clarify the effects of RT on the development of diabetic nephropathy.
  • Item
    Determining the Beliefs, Use Levels, and Attitudes of Individuals Diagnosed with COVID-19 Concerning Complementary and Alternative Medicine Methods
    (Brieflands, 2024-04-30) Melike Demir Doğan; Bahar Aksoy
    Background: Stressors during COVID-19, differing views on treatment and vaccination, and the relationship between COVID-19 infection and immune status have led to increased public interest in traditional and complementary medicine practices. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the beliefs, use levels, and attitudes of individuals diagnosed with COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) concerning complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) methods. Methods: Snowball sampling was employed in this descriptive and cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 694 people living in Turkey who had COVID-19 and agreed to voluntarily participate. The data were collected with the introductory information form and the Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire (HCAMQ). The data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics in SPSS v. 26. Results: In the study, 62.8% of the participants stated that they used CAM after being diagnosed with COVID-19; 85.5% of the participants stated that they used CAM for coughing, 84.2% to relieve breathing, 79.6% for shortness of breath, and 73.6% for strengthening immunity. Women had a more positive attitude towards CAM when compared to men. As the income level elevated, the attitude towards holistic health became more positive. Conclusions: The individuals employed various herbal approaches after they had been diagnosed with COVID-19, and women had a more positive attitude towards CAM than men did.
  • Item
    The Situation of Students' COVID-19 Vaccination and Their Views on Vaccination: Turkey Case
    (Brieflands, 2023-01-15) Eylem Yalman; Gökhan Doğukan Akarsu; Rukiye Höbek Akarsu
    Background: This research aimed to define the status of young university students in Turkey with the COVID-19 vaccine and their ideas about it. Methods: This descriptive and quantitative study was conducted on 602 undergraduate students of a state university in the central Anatolian region of Turkey in the spring semester of the 2021 - 2022 academic year. The data were collected through face-to-face interviews with the students using a questionnaire prepared by the researchers based on the literature. The chi-square test, percentage, and number were used to analyze the data. Results: Of the research participants, 89.7% were COVID-19-vaccinated. Also, 86.7% of vaccinated students had the BioNTech/Pfizer vaccine, 72.96% had two vaccine doses, and 59.5% had doubts about the vaccine. Conclusions: Opinions about vaccines are affected by some sociodemographic characteristics and expert information.
  • Item
    Comparing the Effects of Matrica and Chlorhexidine on the Prevention of Ventilator-Associated Pneumonia
    (Brieflands, 2015-07-01) Ali Maarefvand; Mohammad Reza Heidari; Abbas Ebadi; Anooshirvan Kazemnejad
    Background and Aim: Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the second most common infection within intensive care units (ICUs). Happening in patients requiring mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours, the disease is associated with high morbidity and mortality. This study aims to compare the effects of Matrica and chlorhexidine mouthwashes on the prevention of VAP among patients hospitalized in ICUs of selected hospitals in Qom in 2013. Methods: This random clinical trial was conducted on 60 patients admitted to the ICUs of selected hospitals in Qom. The patients receiving mechanical ventilation had no record of pneumonia and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The experimental group received the Matrica mouthwash and the control group received 0.2% chlorhexidine twice a day. On the eighth day, the VAP was determined using the clinical pulmonary infection score (CPIS). The results were analyzed in SPSS 16.0 using chi-square, independent and paired t tests. The significant level was set at 0.05 Results: Incidence of VAP was respectively 10 (33.3%) and 13 (43.3%) in Matrica and chlorhexidine groups (P = 0.42). Moreover, the clinical pulmonary infection mean score for both groups showed no significant difference before the intervention (P = 0.31) and after it (P = 0.79). Conclusion: As regards the prevention of VAP, there was no difference between the application of Matrica and chlorhexidine mouthwashes for oral care.
  • Item
    High-Risk Behaviors in Medical Students: A Cross-Sectional Study from Tehran, Iran
    (Brieflands, 2018-07-31) Zahra Sorush; Fereydoon Sajadi; Behnaz Soleimani Tapehsari; Arghavan Haj-Sheykholeslami; Fatemeh Nadimi G.G; Hossein Dehghani; Marzieh Nojomi
    Background: Policy-makers in the Ministry of Health Care and Medical Education need to have knowledge concerning high-risk behaviors among medical students in order to have positive changes in the educational system of universities of medical sciences. Objectives: To enquire into the prevalence of high risk behaviors among medical students. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on medical students in one of the largest medical universities in Tehran, Iran. A total of 275 medical students participated in the study. They filled out a self-developed questionnaire that covered both demographic characteristics and items on eight main risk domains including safety, violence, depressed mood, physical activity, nutrition, smoking, alcohol consumption, and substance abuse. Results: A total of 275 students (55.3% male, mean age: 23.7 ± 4.3 years) took part in the study. Approximately, 38% of the subjects reported less than 30 minutes of low intensity physical activity during the preceding week. Obesity and overweight were seen in 24.4% of the participants. Around 8% of the students had body mass index (BMI) values below 18 kg/m2. Daily smoking during the past month was reported by 10.5%. A total of 29 students (10.2%) mentioned drinking alcohol during the past month. Sense of depression and hopelessness were reported by 26.6% of students. A total of 5.5% had seriously considered committing suicide, with 3.6% who had actually attempted, with some doing it more than once. Conclusions: In this study, physical inactivity, obesity/overweight, and depressed mood were more frequent. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and drug abuse were more prevalent among male students.
  • Item
    Evaluation of the Incidence of Post - anesthetic Complications in Recovery Unit of 9 - day Hospital in Torbat - e - Heydaryieh in 2016
    (Brieflands, 2018-04-30) Mahsa Nourizadeh; Mahla Rostami; Fariba Saeedi; Hasan Niknejad; Maryam Tatari
    Background: Today, surgery can help prevent many deaths and reduce unpleasant complications of illness; however, it may expose the patient to further risks and complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of post - anesthesia complications in the recovery unit of the 9 - day medical education hospital of Torbat - e - Heydariyeh. Methods: This cross - sectional study was performed on 268 patients who underwent surgery in the 9 - day medical education hospital of Torbat - e - Heydariyeh in 2016. A checklist with verified validity that has been used to collect information, contains section 1: patient demographic information and section 2: post - anesthetic complications. After performing any surgery, the checklist was completed by the anesthetist in the recovery unit. After collecting the data, the data analysis of descriptive statistics and Fisher’s exact and Chi - square tests were analyzed with SPSS 20 software. Results: Of the 268 patients examined in this study, 159 patient (59.3%) were female and 109 (40.7%) were male. In this study of postoperative complications in the recovery unit, 93 patients (34.7%) suffered from cardiovascular complications, 29 (10.8%) from respiratory, and 128 (47.7%) from neurological. Hypothermia and shivering with 60 (22.4%) and nausea and vomiting with 7 (6.2%) were the highest and least frequency. Conclusions: Since incidence of postoperative complications seem to be high in the post - anesthetic care unit, several scientific studies are recommended and use of modern surgical procedure, anesthetics, and monitoring to prevent, detect, and control these complications in prenatal groups seems essential.
  • Item
    Physical Activity, Anthropometric Characteristics, and Quality of Life of Middle-Aged Women Living in Rural and Nomadic Areas of Kermanshah Province
    (Brieflands, 2021-01-31) Rastegar Hoseini; Nariman Rahmani; Zahra Hoseini; Elahe Bahmani; Mahsa Ahmadi Darmian; Mehry Hoseini; Zohreh Khaksar Haghani; Mehdi Rahimzadeh
    Background: High physical activity level (PAL) and anthropometric characteristics (AC) are positively associated with quality of life (QoL). Several studies have investigated rural-urban differences in PAL, AC, and QoL. However, cultural and geographical differences have not been studied yet. Objectives: This study aimed to examine PAL, AC, and QoL of middle-aged women living in rural and nomadic Areas of Kermanshah province (Sarpol-e-Zahab, Paveh, and Kangavar cities). Methods: In this descriptive-analytical study, using the multi-stage (Cluster) sampling techniques, 1635 nomadic rural women from three cities of Kermanshah province (Sarpol-e Zahab (n = 609); Paveh (n = 480) and Kangavar (n = 546)) were volunteered. After filling out the consent form, the PAL and QOL questionnaires were completed and anthropometric parameters were measured. The PAL was assessed using the Baecke physical activity questionnaire, and the QOL was measured by the QoL Questionnaire (short-form-SF-12). Results: The findings showed that BW, BMI, BFP, and WHR were 68.01 ± 14.90, 27.46 ± 5.33, 29.41 ± 9.28, and 0.91 in Sarpol-e Zahab; 67.90 ± 15.56, 27.88 ± 17.85, 33.03 ± 11.97, and 0.93 in Paveh; and 69.24 ± 14.74, 28.31 ± 5.59, 30.91 ± 11.67, and 0.92 in Kangavar, respectively. In Paveh city, the PAL and QOL (14.37 ± 5.10; 23.08 ± 2.32; P = 0.001, respectively) were significantly higher than Kangavar (12.23 ± 3.18; 20.28 ± 3.32) and Sarpol-e-Zahab (10.57 ± 6.11; 16.24 ± 7.22) cities. A significant association was found between PAL and QOL (P = 0.001). Conclusion: Based on the findings, increasing the PAL of middle-aged women might improve QoL and AC.
  • Item
    The Barriers to the Success of Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation from the Perspectives of Emergency Medical Services Providers
    (Brieflands, 2021-01-31) Ayob Akbari; Ahmad Nasiri; Mohammad Azim Mahmodi
    Background: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) is an integral part of prehospital emergency care. Addressing the barriers to successful CPR may help improve the quality of CPR in the future. Objectives: The present study aimed to identify the barriers to successful CPR from the perspective of EMS providers. Methods: This cross-sectional analytical study was conducted from May 2015 to Jan 2016. One hundred sixty EMS providers who were employed at EMS affiliated to Birjand University of Medical Sciences (Iran) were selected through simple random sampling. To assess barriers to the success of CPR, data were collected using a researcher-made questionnaire (60 questions) categorized in six subscales. Study data were analyzed by SPSS v.16, descriptive (frequency, mean, and standard deviation), and inferential statistics (t-test and ANOVA). Results: Among the subscales of barriers to successful CPR from the perspective of EMS providers, the EMS structure subscale was the most important (3.06 ± 0.38, out of a 0 - 4 range). In this subscale, public inaccessibility automated external defibrillator (AED) (3.59 ± 0.49) and Lack of telephone-CPR advice by the dispatcher (3.58 ± 0.55) were the most important barriers, respectively. There was a significant difference between the mean score of barriers to successful CPR and educational status, which increased in EMS providers with BS degree (P = 0.003). There was no significant difference between the mean score of barriers to successful CPR compared to the other demographic characteristics of EMS providers (P > 0.05). Conclusions: EMS providers perceived public inaccessibility AED and Lack of telephone-CPR training as the most important barriers to success CPR in prehospital emergency care. Therefore, public access to AED must be emphasized to promote immediate response and improve CPR's outcome in EMS. Moreover, telephone-CPR training by dispatchers should be recommended to help increase the success of CPR.
  • Item
    The Angiogenetic Effect of Resveratrol on Dermal Wound Healing in Balb/C Mice
    (Brieflands, 2017-10-31) Mohammad Afshar; Mohammad-Mehdi Hassanzadeh-Taheri; Mahmood Zardast; Asma Moghaddam
    Background: Angiogenesis has a basic role in wound healing. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is considered as the most efficient signal that stimulates angiogenesis in wounds. Resveratrol as a natural polyphenol has enigmatic effects on VEGF-expression, angiogenesis, and granulation. Thus, the current study investigated resveratrol effects on these factors during wound healing in BALB/c mice. Methods: Sixty male BALB/c mice (2.5-month-old) were divided into 5 groups (each group n = 12). A full dermis thickness incision was placed on the dorsal skin. The study groups were topically administered 0.05% and 0.1% resveratrol, while the control groups were treated with nitrofurazone 0.2% cream (positive control), eucerine (negative control) or no treatment (sham group) twice per day for 14 days post wounding. Three animals of each group were sacrificed after anesthetizing on the post-operative days of 4, 7, 10, and 14. Therefore, the incision wounds were examined histologically and immunohistochemically using ImageJ software. Data were expressed as mean ± standard deviation (SD). Comparisons among multiple groups were performed by analysis of variance (ANOVA). Data were analyzed with SPSS version 24. Results: Compared with the control and sham groups, resveratrol administration increased VEGF-expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Results of the current study also revealed that higher granulation at wound tissue due to high VEGF expression accelerated wound healing. The mean of granulation in resveratrol-treated group was significantly higher than those of the control groups. Conclusions: The current study findings showed that resveratrol had positive effect on VEGF-expression and granulation in wound healing.
  • Item
    Vitamin D Supplementation Increases the Aerobic Training Effects on Anthropometric Indices in Elderly Women with Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease and Vitamin D Deficiency
    (Brieflands, 2019-07-31) Zahra Hoseini; Nasser Behpour; Rastegar Hoseini
    Background: Recent studies indicate that aerobic training may affect non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Besides, vitamin D and NAFLD are known to have more than just an association. Objectives: This study aimed to examine the effects of vitamin D supplementation, combined with aerobic training, on anthropometric indices in elderly women with NAFLD and vitamin D deficiency. Methods: We randomly divided 40 elderly women with NAFLD and vitamin D deficiency into four groups: aerobic training + vitamin D supplementation (AT + Vit. D), aerobic training (AT), vitamin D supplementation (Vit. D), and control (C). The AT protocol consisted of 40 - 60 minutes of aerobic training at 60% - 75% of HRmax three times a week for eight weeks. The anthropometric indices included body weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage (BFP), and waist-hip ratio (WHR) measured at the start and after eight weeks of the study. Data were analyzed by paired t-test and ANOVA using SPSS version 21.0 software at a significance level of P < 0.05. Results: Anthropometric indices (BW, BMI, BFP, and WHR) significantly changed in all groups, with a significant increment in the control group and decrement in the AT + Vit. D, AT, and Vit. D groups. No significant differences were observed between the AT + Vit. D, AT, and Vit. D groups in the measured variables. Conclusions: Vitamin D supplementation combined with aerobic training improves the anthropometric indices in elderly women with NAFLD.
  • Item
    The Effects of Inhalation of Aromatherapy with Lavender on Anxiety Amongst Patients Undergoing Colonoscopy
    (Brieflands, 2016-01-31) Marzieh Mogharab; Kazem Ayoubzadeh; Seyed Mousal Reza Hosseini; Gholamreza Sharifzadeh
    Background: Colonoscopy-associated anxiety can cause different complications and therefore, anesthesia, opioids or tranquilizers should manage it. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of inhalation of aromatherapy with lavender on anxiety amongst patients undergoing a colonoscopy. Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on patients referred to the colonoscopy center of Qaem (PBUH) Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. Fifty patients were randomly allocated to either a control group or an aromatherapy group, 25 patients in each one. Once admitted to the hospital, the patients completed a demographic questionnaire and Spielberger’s State Anxiety Inventory. Afterward, for ten minutes, the patients in the aromatherapy group inhaled three drops of pure lavender essential oil, which was sprayed, by using a nebulizer, while patients in the control group inhaled five milliliters of distilled water in the same way as the patients in the experimental group. Finally, the patients in both groups were asked to recomplete the Spielberger’s State Anxiety Inventory both before and after undergoing a colonoscopy. The SPSS software (v. 19.0) was used to analyze data by the Chi-square, the Fisher’s exact test and the independent sample t-tests as well as the repeated measures analysis of variance at a significant level of less than 0.05. Results: The mean anxiety scores in the aromatherapy group at the three measurement time points were 52.3 ± 6.4, 44.8 ± 7.1 and 47.5 ± 6.6 while these values in the control group were 52.4 ± 7.2, 50.1 ± 5.9 and 49.1 ± 5.2, respectively. After the intervention and before the colonoscopy procedure, there was a significant difference between the groups regarding the mean anxiety score (P = 0.002). Moreover, the amount of decrease in the mean anxiety scores at different time points was significantly greater in the aromatherapy group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Inhalation of aromatherapy with lavender significantly reduces state anxiety amongst patients who are going to undergo a colonoscopy. Therefore, lavender aromatherapy can be used to reduce patients’ anxiety in clinical settings.
  • Item
    Comparison of Motor Development in Preterm, and Term Children Aged 3 to 7 Years
    (Brieflands, 2020-07-31) Musa Dehghan; Abdullah Ghasemi; Ali Kashi; Elahe Arabameri; Kayvan Molanorouzi
    Background: Human development is influenced by genetic, environmental, and social factors whose foundation is formed from infancy and childhood. Preterm birth and low birth weight are important issues that can affect the development and threaten the public health. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare motor development manipulation, balance, aiming, and receiving in low, very low birth weight, and normal children aged 3 to7 years. Methods: In this comparative study, 63 children were selected from among the preterm infants admitted to NICU ward. They were divided into three groups of (1) low birth weight children (mean 2066 ± 354 g) (n = 30), (2) very low birth weight children (mean 1325 ± 117 g) (n = 13), and (3) preterm twin children (mean 1781 ± 385 g) (n = 20).Also, 15 term children with an average weight (3345 ± 365 g) were selected. To evaluate the motor development of children, the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (Second Edition) (MABC-2) test was used. The results were analyzed by SPSS using one-way ANOVA test (P ≤ 0.05). Results: Low birthweight and very low birthweight children had poorer performance on manipulation, aiming, catching, and balance compared to normal children (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusions: VLBW children performed significantly poorer than LBW and Twin children on the subscales of posting coins, threading beads, drawing trail, one-leg balance, and walking heels raised.
  • Item
    Comparison of the Effectiveness of Visual Thinking Strategy Between Persian Miniature and Classical Painting in Learning Medical Humanities from the Perspective of Medical Students
    (Brieflands, 2022-04-30) Faezeh Abedi; Rahim Charkhi; Farzaneh Fakhr; Seyyed Abolfazl Vagharseyyedin; Khadijeh Farrokhfall
    Background: Visual thinking strategy (VTS) is an interdisciplinary education that focuses on art. In this method, all students think about complex artistic elements. VTS uses visual literacy to teach communication skills and thinking. Objectives: This study aims to compare the educational effectiveness of Persian pictures with classical painting, which leads to teaching the concepts of medical humanities using medical students’ perspective. Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive-analytical study, medical students of clinical course (trainees and interns, 4th - 7th year of medicine) in the second semester of the 2021 academic year attended a VTS discussion session, which contained thinking about three paintings, including a classical western painting, a Safavid era miniature, and a contemporary painting. At the end of the session, an opinion poll on the effectiveness criteria was completed by the students separately for each painting, and the results were analyzed. Results: According to the findings, our intervention improved visual and auditory sensitivity, accuracy and attention, interaction and cooperation with others, teamwork, and an understanding of their share in the group. In addition, from the perspective of contemporary miniature students, this field played a prominent role in reducing job exhaustion, anxiety, and stress, and created a sense of calm and aesthetics in students by applying topics and issues of the day and paying attention to socio-cultural issues. Classical western painting conveyed a sense of calm and discomfort to the students. Based on the results of interpretive content analysis, this kind of painting had a profound effect on the meaning transmission so that it exposed the comprehensive views on the subject to the viewer’s sight. Given that the Safavid miniature contains various symbols that express the details of the social context and cultural traditions related to human beings, it conveys a variety of senses. On the other hand, the use of classical painting and contemporary Persian painting in VTS discussions in medical education was more prominent than the Safavid era miniature. Conclusions: Miniature can have helpful effects on improving medical professional skills similar to classical painting in VTS topics.
  • Item
    Musculoskeletal Pain and Associated Factors Among Informal Caregivers of Stroke Survivors in Northwestern Nigeria
    (Brieflands, 2022-04-30) Muhammad A. Abba; Umar A. Ahmad; Abdulhamid U. Maje; Abdulmumeen Z. Haruna; Aminu A. Ibrahim
    Background: Pain is an important clinical factor that limits movement and functions. Informal caregivers of stroke survivors are primarily involved in providing care and assistance and may face musculoskeletal problems. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of musculoskeletal pain (MSP) and associated factors among informal caregivers of stroke survivors in northwestern Nigeria. Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study performed among 218 informal caregivers of stroke survivors. Data on sociodemographic characteristics, nature of caregiving, and duration of caregiving were collected using researcher-designed data forms. A 12-month prevalence of MSP in different body regions was obtained using the Nordic Musculoskeletal Questionnaire. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data at an alpha level of 0.05. Results: The majority of the caregivers were females (60.6%) within the age range of 18 - 27 years old (50.9%) and engaged in full-time caregiving (63.8%). The overall prevalence of MSP among the caregivers was 16.5%. The most common MSP was low back pain (28%) and was found to be associated with age, gender, body mass index, marital status, educational level, occupational status, duration of caregiving, and nature of caregiving (all P Conclusions: Low back pain is the most common occurring MSP among informal caregivers of stroke survivors and is associated with duration of caregiving, nature of caregiving, and several sociodemographic characteristics. It is recommended that physiotherapists and nurses in northwestern Nigeria should educate informal caregivers of stroke survivors on proper ergonomics and other MSP preventive strategies.
  • Item
    Comparison of the Effect of Face-to-face and Social Media-based Training on the Self-care of Women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) in Birjand
    (Brieflands, 2022-04-30) Mohaddeseh Hosseinzadeh; Gholamreza Sharifzadeh; Mostafa Hosseinzadeh; Marzieh Torshizi
    Background: Gestational diabetes is one of the most common medical complications during pregnancy. Disease control is essential because of the increasing prevalence of this disorder, and the most important control factor is self-care behaviors. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare the effect of face-to-face and social media-based education on self-care of women with gestational diabetes. Methods: This quasi-experimental randomized controlled study was performed on 73 pregnant women with gestational diabetes in Birjand, Iran. Participants completed a self-care and demographic questionnaire and then were divided into three groups (face-to-face, virtual, and control training group). In the face-to-face training group, four training sessions (one hour) were held for one month. The virtual group received two messages per day for 30 days via Telegram, and the control group received only routine training. One month after the intervention, the questionnaire was completed by all individuals. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups in terms of mean self-care score before the intervention, but after the intervention, the mean self-care score increased in the face-to-face training group (P < 0.001) and social media training group (P = 0.01) compared to the control group (P = 0.22). Conclusions: In this study, the effect of face-to-face and virtual education is the same. Therefore, education-based social networks can be used because of the prevalence of coronavirus and transportation problems of pregnant women.
  • Item
    Survey of Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice of Female High School Students Regarding Sun Protection in Birjand, Iran
    (Brieflands, 2022-04-30) Fatemeh Taheri; Maryam Salehpour; Ahmad Reza Taheri
    Background: Excessive sun exposure in childhood and adolescence is an important factor in skin cancer. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude, and practice of female high school students in Birjand, Iran, regarding sun protection behaviors and investigate the effect of various environmental and demographic factors. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed on female high school students in Birjand within October to January 2018 using the stratified cluster random sampling method. The data collection tool was a researcher-made questionnaire containing various items related to knowledge, attitude, and practice, the validity of which was confirmed. Information was also obtained on the geographical location of the school, field of study, grade, grade point average, and parents’ educational level. The data were analyzed using SPSS software (version 22) based on descriptive-analytical analyses. Results: Out of a total of 576 students, 26.7%, 89.1%, and 53.6% had good knowledge, attitude, and practice of skin protection against ultraviolet rays. The practice scores of southern and western school students with better socioeconomic status were higher than in other geographic regions (P < 0.001). The students in experimental sciences had higher knowledge (P = 0.01), and students in humanities had a higher attitude (P = 0.03) and practice (P = 0.007) than the other two disciplines. The third-grade students scored higher on knowledge (P < 0.001). The students whose mothers had university education scored higher in knowledge, attitude, and practice. Moreover, those whose fathers had a university education scored higher in practice. Knowledge and attitude had a significant relationship with practice; attitude had a higher coefficient. Conclusions: Practice can be improved by increasing the levels of knowledge and attitude. The educational level of the parents, especially mothers, is very important in this regard.
  • Item
    Comparison of Lifestyle of Nurses with and Without COVID-19 Working in Hospitals Affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences
    (Brieflands, 2022-04-30) Afzal Shamsi; Musab Ghaderi; Mansureh Jaladati
    Background: Health and lifestyle are very important considering the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. In the meantime, the lifestyle of nurses is of two-fold importance regarding their role in providing a wide range of services. Objectives: The present study aimed to determine and compare the lifestyle of nurses with and without COVID-19 working in hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran. Methods: This comparative study was performed on 500 nurses working in hospitals affiliated with Tehran University of Medical Sciences in 2021. The study population included 500 nurses with (n = 250) and without (n = 250) COVID-19 nurses. The used research methods complied with the STROBE checklist. The data were collected using a demographic information questionnaire and a cross-culturally adapted nurses’ lifestyle questionnaire. Data analysis was performed using SPSS software (version 25) and descriptive and inferential statistical tests. A P-value less than 0.05 was considered the significance level. Results: The mean age values of participants with and without COVID-19 were 33.9 ± 8.35 and 35.7 ± 7.02 years, respectively. The statistical t-test showed that the overall lifestyle score was significantly higher in nurses with COVID-19 (4.06 ± 0.39) than in nurses without COVID-19 (3.90 ± 0.43) (P = 0.010). The overall score of lifestyle subscales in the COVID-19 group was higher than the nonCOVID-19 group. In this regard, the highest subscale score was related to the competence dimension in both COVID-19 (4.69 ± 0.300) and nonCOVID-19 (4.57 ± 0.418) groups (P = 0.001). Conclusions: The lifestyle of COVID-19 nurses is better than nonCOVID-19 nurses. Accordingly, planning is necessary to improve the lifestyle of nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic, especially nurses without COVID-19.