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    De Novo Inflammatory Bowel Disease after Liver Transplantation: Eleven Years' Experience in Shiraz, Iran
    (Brieflands, 2024-02-29) Yousef Paridar; Aziz Kassani
    Background: Inflammation may occur after solid and liquid liver transplantations at a rate higher than in the general population. Objectives: This study aimed to investigate the incidence of de novo inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and assess some risk factors after Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in liver transplant patients in Shiraz, Iran. Methods: The sample study comprised patients (n = 1702) who had received liver transplants between 2001 and 2012 at the Shiraz liver transplant center. The data were obtained from patient records, which included information on their medical history, colonoscopy reports, family history of IBD, and other risk factors. The study evaluated the status of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) among patients who had undergone liver transplantations due to autoimmune hepatitis group (AIH), Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis (PSC), and other liver transplant patients. Additionally, case groups were formed, comprising AIH patients (n1 = 10) and other patients with IBD (n2 = 10), and were compared with transplant patients without IBD as the control group (n1 = 21, n2 = 21). Results: Out of the total 1702 patients, 254 (14.92%) had AIH, 211 (12.40%) had PSC, and 1237 (72.68%) had other outcomes. The mean of leukocyte counts (P-value = 0.73), types of immunosuppressant medications, and serum levels of cyclosporine (P-value = 0.77) and tacrolimus (P-value = 0.27) did not show any significant differences between the case and control groups. However, it was observed that IBD developed earlier in patients with AIH compared to other patients (20.1 ± 2.23 vs 53.9 ± 4.42 months). Conclusions: The incidence of IBD after liver transplantation was higher compared to the general population, and it occurred earlier in patients who underwent transplantation for AIH and other groups.
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    Targeted Molecular Profiling of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer in India
    (Brieflands, 2024-03-17) Arpan Dhungel; Manjunatha Mudagal; Uday Raj Sharma; Surendra Sariwan; Dinisha Sharma; Surendra Vada; Suresh Janadri; Haribabu T; Gurubasavaraja Swamy P.M.
    Cancer often rates highly on lists of the world's most hazardous diseases and routinely appears high on lists of the illnesses that people fear the most. Due of its relevance to the subject at hand, this article concentrates on lung cancer rather than other forms of malignancy. Most patients, both those who have never smoked cigarette as well as those who have, are affected by NSCLC, the more common of these two types. The Mesenchymal – Epithelial Transition (MET) protein amplification, EGFR mutations, RET Fusions, and other possible therapeutic targets for the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer are highlighted in this article. The primary aim of this article is to provide a gist of the various mutations and targets' modes of action. It also covers the limits of the medicines that are currently being used to treat certain targets.
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    In Silico Designing of a Novel Antibody Conjugate as a Potential Immunotherapeutic for the Treatment of CD19-Positive Hematologic Malignancies
    (Brieflands, 2021-05-31) Pooria Safarzadeh Kozani
    Background: Immunotherapy can now be considered as game changer of cancer treatment. So far, numerous monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and their derivatives, such as antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs), have been approved by regulatory agencies for medical use. This implies that the recombinant or chemical conjugation of mAbs to cytotoxic agents can be regarded as a potential cancer treatment modality. Objectives: This study aimed to design an antibody conjugate through the recombinant conjugation of a humanized CD19-specific single-chain variable fragment (scFv), named HuFMC63, to granzyme B (GrB) using precise in silico approaches. Methods: Four different linker peptides were used for the conjugation of HuFMC63 to GrB, and the 3D structure of these antibody conjugates were predicted using GalaxyWEB. The antibody conjugate whose linker peptide had the least impact on the structural conformation of HuFMC63 and GrB was subsequently selected. Additionally, the solubility and melting temperature of the selected conjugate was compared with those of HuFMC6 and GrB, and its physicochemical properties and flexibility were also assessed. Ultimately, the binding capacity and the dissociation constant (Kd) of the selected conjugate to CD19 were compared with those of HuFMC63 (concisely referred to as Hu63), and then the residues that contributed to antigen binding were identified using LigPlot+ software. Results: The Hu63-(G4S)3-GrB conjugate, which is constructed using the (G4S)3 linker, was selected as the best conjugate. The solubility of Hu63-(G4S)3-GrB was predicted to be higher than HuFMC63 and GrB (from 60% in the unconjugated to 98% in the conjugated format). Moreover, it was elucidated that Hu63-(G4S)3-GrB binds CD19 in the same orientation as that of HuFMC63 and with the same Kd of 17 and 33 nM at 25.0°C and 37.0°C, respectively. Conclusions: In silico techniques, such as those employed in this study, could be utilized for the early development of immune-based therapeutics. Moreover, Hu63-(G4S)3-GrB could be introduced as a potent therapeutic for the elimination of CD19-positive malignant cells after careful preclinical and clinical evaluations.
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    Evaluation of Platelet Parameters in Patients with Preeclampsia in Comparison with Healthy Pregnant Women Referring to Ganjavian Hospital in Dezful City in 2019
    (Brieflands, 2022-02-28) Fahimeh Papiahmadi; Nastaran Mirsamiyazdi; Radman Amiri; Leila Masoudiyekta; Hadi Bahrami; Mahnaz Nosratabadi
    Background: Preeclampsia is one of the complications of pregnancy that endangers the life of the mother and the fetus. This complication accounts for 18% of maternal mortality and is the second leading cause of maternal mortality in Iran. Various studies have shown the important role of platelets in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate platelet parameters in patients with preeclampsia compared to healthy pregnant women who were referred to Ganjavian hospital in Dezful city in 2019. Methods: In this study, which is a retrospective case-control study, the files of women who gave birth in Ganjavian hospital in 2019 were examined. The files of the case group, which included people with preeclampsia, were selected as available samples (104 people), and the control group, which included pregnant women without preeclampsia, were randomly selected using a table of random numbers (104 cases). Criteria for entering the study in the group with preeclampsia included BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg, proteinuria of more than 300 mg in 24-hour urine or 30 mg consistently in random urine samples, and gestational age over 20 weeks. Also, people with any underlying disease, such as diabetes, chronic hypertension, known platelet disorders, multiple birth, and drug use (heparin, aspirin) in the group with preeclampsia were excluded from the study. The data of this study were analyzed using SPSS software version 20, and independent t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test at a significant level lower than 0.05. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in demographic factors between the two case and control groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean hemoglobin in healthy women 11.91 ± 1.30 and preeclampsia 10.89 ± 1.09 (P < 0.0001). Also, according to the findings, the individuals of the two groups had a significant difference in terms of mean platelet volume (MPV): Healthy women: 10.79 ± 1.24 and preeclampsia women: 12.98 ± 1.16 (P < 0.0001). Also, the results of the Mann-Whitney U test showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the number of platelets in healthy women (284.52 ± 60.58 mm3) and preeclampsia women (149.30 ± 30.38 mm3) (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Considering the importance of reducing the complications and mortality of pregnant mothers, early detection of changes in platelet factors during pregnancy can be a predictive factor in identifying people at risk for preeclampsia.
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    Consequences of Anemia in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure
    (Brieflands, 2022-02-28) Shima Yazdanfar; Neda Shakerian; Mohammad Reza Atabi; Azam Sadeghiniya; Maysam Mard-Soltani
    Background: Heart failure (HF) is recognized as a structural and functional heart complication. Many studies have revealed that anemia plays an ambiguous role in this complication and can be a significant prognostic parameter in HF. In our trial, for clarification of this issue, the relationship between HF and anemia was studied. Methods: In this case-control study, 273 patients admitted to the CCU and post-CCU wards of Dezful Hospital, who were selected by the available sampling method, were studied. In this investigation, among 273 patients with HF, hematological, biochemical, and heart functional parameters were assessed and compared with 89 healthy volunteers. Consequently, the correlation between hematological parameters and functional heart parameters in the patients was evaluated via Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: The study subjects were tried to have similar conditions regarding their demographic characteristics. The mean age of the included participants was 53.68 ± 2.17 years. Our data revealed that HF occurs mainly at the age of 50 to 70 years, and patients had an 8.7% mortality risk. Hematocrit (HCT) had a significant reduction in the HF group in comparison to the normal range (P-value < 0.05), and HCT level in healthy subjects (P-value = 0.02). Further, anemia is positively correlated with HF mortality rate and severity of HF indices in patients (P-value = 0.01). Conclusions: The results of our study, consistent with other previous studies, showed that HF patients have a low HCT level, and this reduction is associated with a marked decline in health status indices in HF patients. Also, our results revealed that patients with the lowest level of HCT are at high risk for HF symptoms.
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    Evaluation of Fertility Success Rate with Simultaneous Transfer of Embryos with Different Qualities in IVF/ICSI Candidates
    (Brieflands, 2022-12-26) Sima Janati; Mohammad Amin Behmanesh; Sarah Madani; Seyedeh Mahsa Poormoosavi
    Background: One of the most important factors in the success of assisted reproductive techniques is the quality of the embryo generated in the laboratory. Whether to transfer only one high-quality embryo or a combination of high- and low-quality embryos is a dilemma. Objectives: The present study reviewed the embryo transfer records of IVF/intra cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) patients in Dezful Infertility Center, Iran, to evaluate the impact of the simultaneous transfer of a low-quality embryo on the growth and implantation of a high-quality embryo and live birth. Methods: This cross-sectional study evaluated the files and records of 802 patients undergoing IVF/ICSI at Dezful Infertility Treatment Center from 2013 to September 2020. The patients were classified into group 1: Patients with the transfer of only one grade A (equal blastomeres without fragmentation) embryo, group 2: Patients with the transfer of two grade A and B (equal blastomeres with slight fragmentation) embryos, group 3: Patients with the transfer of two grade A and C (unequal blastomeres with or without fragmentation) embryos, and group 4: Patients with the transfer of two grade C and B embryos. Results: The mean age of women and men was 32.52 ± 5.10 and 37.59 ± 6.60 years, respectively. Age, duration of infertility, cause of infertility, endometrial diameter, estradiol level, oocyte number, and embryo number had no significant differences between the groups (P > 0.05). Also, the findings indicated no significant differences between the groups in terms of implantation rate, live birth rate, fertility rate, multiple pregnancies rate, and chemical and clinical abortions (P > 0.05). Conclusions: It seems that the simultaneous transfer of embryos with different qualities does not affect the success rate and fertility outcomes in IVF/ICSI candidates.
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    Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-Cell Therapy: An Overview of the Changing Face of Cancer Immunotherapy
    (Brieflands, 2022-02-28) Pouya Safarzadeh Kozani; Pooria Safarzadeh Kozani; Fatemeh Rahbarizadeh
    Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy has emerged as the revolutionary cancer treatment method in recent years due to the heartwarming clinical outcomes in several types of hematologic malignancies. Since 2017, the US Food and Drug Administration has approved four CAR T-cell products, including tisagenlecleucel [for B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL)], axicabtagene ciloleucel (for DLBCL), brexucabtagene autoleucel (for mantle cell lymphoma), and lisocabtagene maraleucel (for DLBCL). The efficacy optimization and toxicity management methods of CAR T-cell therapy are among the most investigated fields of cancer immunotherapy. Furthermore, the favorable outcomes achieved by the aforementioned CAR T-cell products in hematologic malignancies have encouraged researchers to bring successful outcomes to solid tumor patients. This study aimed to highlight the outstanding characteristics and the manufacturing process of CAR T-cells and discuss the key lane leading to their clinically approved products.
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    Perceptions About the Nursing Assistant Role in Ganjavian Hospital of Dezful: A Conventional Content Analysis
    (Brieflands, 2021-08-01) Nasrin Sarabi
    Background: Using different skill levels for patient care not only helps better and more fully meet patients' needs but also reduces the need for expert nurses. Objectives: This study was conducted to determine the perceptions of nurses and nursing assistants about the nursing assistant role. Methods: This study was conducted based on a conventional content analysis approach. The data was collected at the Ganjavian hospital in Dezful, Iran. Ten nurses and eleven nursing assistants were selected by purposeful sampling, and data were collected using unstructured interviews. The recorded interviews were eventually transcribed verbatim, and meaning units were then identified. Coding was then performed by compressing the meaning units and converting them into codes. The codes were summarized and classified to form categories. At last, the categories formed themes based on their similarities and differences. Results: Displeasure of the position was the main category of the study, which consisted of the two main subcategories of “having a small role in assisting nurses” and “reluctance to work”. Conclusions: The results of the study showed that nursing assistants have problems performing their roles, which need to be addressed by nursing managers.
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    Comparing the Effect of Geranium Aromatherapy and Foot Reflexology on Fatigue and Daily Activities of Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis: A Randomized Controlled Trial
    (Brieflands, 2022-11-30) Leila Kalani; Vahid Kheirandish; Marzieh Beigom Bigdeli Shamloo; Mastaneh Zanganeh; Mahboubeh Valiani; Faraz Mojab; Javad Moazen; Neda Rashidi
    Background: Fatigue is the most common symptom described by patients undergoing hemodialysis. Foot reflexology and then aromatherapy, among the types of complementary medicine, are the most frequently used intervention to control fatigue in patients undergoing hemodialysis. Objectives: The purpose of the present study is to compare the effect of aromatherapy with geranium essential oil and foot reflexology on Fatigue and daily activities of patients undergoing hemodialysis referred to the Hemodialysis Centers of Dezful University of Medical Sciences in 2019. Methods: This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 90 patients (30 patients in the geranium essential oil aromatherapy intervention group, 30 patients in the foot reflexology intervention group, and 30 patients in the control group). After the consent form was completed by the patient, Visual Analogue Fatigue Scale (VAFS), Piper Fatigue Scale (PFS) and Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) scale were completed for patients before the intervention and then four weeks after the intervention. Data analysis was carried out using descriptive statistics (prevalence, mean and standard deviation) and inferential statistics (one-way analysis of variance and least significant difference (LSD) post hoc test, t test) in SPSS version 16. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the pre-test and post-test PFS and NEADL scores in the foot reflexology group. After foot reflexology, the mean fatigue scores decreased significantly (P < 0.001) and the mean activities of daily living (ADL) scores increased significantly (P < 0.001). There were no changes in fatigue and ADL scores in the geranium essential oil aromatherapy and the control groups after the intervention (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Foot reflexology can be used as an effective nursing intervention to reduce fatigue and increase ADLs of patients with chronic kidney failure and undergoing hemodialysis treatment.
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    Vitamin D Deficiency and COVID-19: A Case-Control Study at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Iran
    (Brieflands, 2023-02-28) Zahra Eslamifar; Javad Moazen; Hossein Tizgar; Fatemeh Pourmotahari; Mahin Behzadifard
    Background: Areas with a higher prevalence of vitamin D deficiency have reported a higher frequency of severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infections. Objectives: This study aimed to assess the possible association between vitamin D and COVID-19. Methods: This study examined the vitamin D status, hepatic, serologic, and hematologic parameters of COVID-19 patients who tested positive upon admission to a major referral center in southwest Iran. A total of 50 cases and 50 controls were enrolled in the study after obtaining informed consent. The patients did not receive a vitamin D supplement during their hospitalization. Results: Patients with insufficiency and deficiency of vitamin D3 had a longer hospitalization time, a higher likelihood of ICU admission, and a greater risk of death compared to cases with sufficient levels of vitamin D. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that vitamin D deficiency is associated with increased severity and mortality rates. Therefore, using a vitamin D supplement may help reduce the severity of COVID-19.
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    The Effectiveness of Acceptance and Commitment-Based Therapy on Pain and Quality of Life of Patients with Breast Cancer
    (Brieflands, 2022-11-30) Mehrdad Akbari; Bibi Marzeihe Gheibi Hayat
    Background: Breast cancer is the most common cancer among women, affecting their mental and social health and quality of life. Objectives: This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment-based therapy (ACT) on the severity of pain and quality of life in patients with breast cancer. Methods: This research had a semi-experimental pre-test and post-test design with a control group, which, using the convenience sampling method, selected 30 patients with breast cancer and randomly assigned them to the experimental and control groups. During the two months, the experimental group underwent eight 90-minute sessions of ACT-based group therapy. The scores of Cleeland's severity of pain and Arenson’s quality of life questionnaires before and after the intervention were collected from two experimental and control groups and analyzed using SPSS 20. Results: The findings showed that treatment based on ACT significantly reduced pain and increased quality of life in the experimental group compared to the control group in the postoperative stage. Conclusions: Considering the findings and observed efficacy, this method can effectively reduce pain and improve the quality of life of patients with breast cancer. Therefore, it is advisable to use this method along with medical therapies by establishing counseling centers in specialty hospitals and cancer clinics.
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    ACE2 in SARS-CoV-2-Mediated COVID-19: A Brief Review
    (Brieflands, 2022-11-30) Pooria Safarzadeh Kozani; Setareh Dashti Shokoohi; Narges Baharifar; Sepideh Sheikhi; Fatemeh Khalaf Shamsabadi; Forough Chamaie Nejad; Mehdi Sheikhi; Mehdi Rabiee Valashedi; Pouya Safarzadeh Kozani; Seyed Mohamad Javad Mirarefin; Abdolkarim Sheikhi
    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is widely known as the essential receptor for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). SARS-CoV-2 is the cause of the globally known coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which has been the leading cause of virus-related mortality since early 2020. A wide range of human cells in different human organs express ACE2. The importance of ACE2 in the involvement of human organs during COVID-19 and its critical role in the process of target cell infection have rendered it an interesting therapeutic target. In this review, we briefly focus on ACE2 and its general roles in the human body and highlight the roles of ACE2 in the emergence of COVID19. Ultimately, we discuss the strategies for preventing virus entry using ACE2 blocking.
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    Natural Acquired Immunity Against Haemophilus influenzae Type-B in Patients Undergoing Hemodialysis Jahrom, Iran, 2022
    (Brieflands, 2022-11-30) Masihollah Shakeri; Vahid Rahmanian; Farhang Hooshmand; Naghmeh Bina; Abdolreza Sotoodeh Jahromi
    Background: End stage renal disease (ESRD) patients who undergo hemodialysis treatment suffer from immune system disorders. The immunodeficiency of these patients makes them prone to various infections. Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of naturally acquired immunity against Haemophilus influenzae type-B (Hib) and its association with the duration of dialysis treatment, gender, and age of patients in hemodialysis patients in Jahrom city, Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional descriptive was conducted on ESRD patients undergoing hemodialysis treatment, referred to Jahrom Hemodialysis Center, June - August,2022. In order to determine the presence or absence of an immunity to Hib in the patients, the qualitative level of anti-Hib Polyribosyl-ribitol-phosphate (anti-Hib PRP) antibodies in the serum of the patients were determined using the ELISA test using a specialized commercial kit. SPSS-21 was used to analyze the data. The chi-square test, univariate and multivariable logistic regression were used for data analysis. Results: The prevalence of naturally acquired immunity to Hib in patients was 26.13% (10.22% short-term immunity, 15.91% long-term immunity). A significant relationship was found between the prevalence of long-term immunity to Hib in patients and the number of dialysis sessions three times and more per week (P < 0.001). Conclusions: Considering that hemodialysis patients in Iran are not vaccinated against Hib, 26.13% prevalence of natural immunity against Hib indicates the same prevalence of Hib infection history in hemodialysis patients. A case-control study with a large sample size on hemodialysis patients is recommended to accurately determine the prevalence of Hib and to decide whether to implement a Hib vaccination program in these patients.
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    The First Case Series of Malaria Overlapped with COVID-19 in Iran
    (Brieflands, 2023-02-28) Sajjad Fekri Jaski; Mousa Khosravani; Konstantina Boutsika; Shohreh Ghadarjani; Ahmad Raeisi; Mahmood Hosseinpoor; Baharolsadat Hosseini; Rouhollah Arshadinezhad
    Introduction: Although indigenous malaria cases have dramatically declined over the past decades, the COVID pandemic has continued to affect the programs designed to combat malaria, particularly in those countries where hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine have been used as medications for treating COVID. Two immigrants entered Iran illegally from neighboring countries (i.e., Afghanistan and Pakistan). This study mainly aimed to assess the effects of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) on these cases from all aspects (i.e., case-finding, diagnosis, and treatment). Case Presentation: Both cases presented with common symptoms such as fever and shaking chills. In addition, they had no sign of COVID-19, and their oxygen level and CT images were normal in some cases, but they were mistakenly treated as COVID-19 patients long after the onset of malaria symptoms. One of the suspected coronavirus cases was given chloroquine on a voluntary basis for one day, which may have been responsible for the possible relapse in vivax or resistance of plasmodium vivax to chloroquine and the recurrence of parasitemia in falciparum. Conclusions: The active case detection of malaria was affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Case finding was dramatically decreased with the onset of coronavirus, thereby causing a spurt in malaria incidence. Moreover, the malaria treatment strategy was negatively affected by the misdiagnosis of COVID-19.
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    Bebtelovimab: The FDA-approved Monoclonal Antibody for Treating Patients with Mild-to-Moderate COVID-19
    (Brieflands, 2022-08-31) Pouya Safarzadeh Kozani; Mehdi Sheikhi; Narges Baharifar; Setareh Dashti Shokoohi; Sara Sheikhi; Seyed Mohamad Javad Mirarefin; Pooria Safarzadeh Kozani; Abdolkarim Sheikhi
    This article does not have an abstract.
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    Promoting the Effector Function of Natural Killer (NK) Cells with a Focus on Bispecific Redirecting Antibodies
    (Brieflands, 2021-08-31) Pouya Safarzadeh Kozani; Pooria Safarzadeh Kozani; Abdolkarim Sheikhi
    This article does not have an abstract.
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    Presentation of a Model for the Distribution of Emergency First Aid During Pre-hospital Triage with a Practical Example
    (Brieflands, 2021-08-31) Abbas Sheikh Aboumasoudi; Shiva Hosseini Foladi; Mostafa Kamali; Alireza Khammar; Laleh Gharacheh; Arezou Poursadeghiyan
    Background: The proper triage of patients, supply chain management, and proper location, delivery, and distribution of health facilities and services in times of crises and disasters have always been challenging issues playing an important role in reducing damages and increasing the level of patient care during emergencies. Objectives: This study was conducted to design a model for allocating emergency first aid in pre-hospital triage. Methods: The model presented in this study is a two-level mathematical model using nonlinear programming to introduce a new location for the establishment and activation of distribution centers in the supply chain and distribution of pre-hospital health-oriented services during crises. This proposed hybrid model seeks to strike a balance between the concepts of efficiency, cost, and dispersion. By expanding the insurance coverage of health services, the number of services provided in the times of crises and triage of injured patients also increases, leading to the delivery of more profits and improvement in the effectiveness of medical services in the shortest possible time. Results: This model helps to select suitable candidate locations for the triage of patients and increases its performance. Therefore, the appropriateness of each place is measured according to the criteria set for them. This model considers different parameters for selecting places for the distribution and allocation of emergency services, including the efficiency of the centers selected for the triage of patients, the cost of the inventory system for providing primary services, the dispersion of selected triage centers, demands for sick and injured patients, the possibility of constructing additional distribution centers (e.g., field hospitals), and strategies to avoid the imposition of additional costs. Conclusions: This study showed that by maximizing the dispersion of desirable facilities, such as distribution centers, the demand coverage of different regions is appropriately improved. In other words, the health service distributor, as one of the important parts of the supply chain, helps service providers better meet the needs of injured patients during emergencies.
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    Evaluation of Platelet Parameters in Patients with Preeclampsia in Comparison with Healthy Pregnant Women Referring to Ganjavian Hospital in Dezful City in 2019
    (Brieflands, 2022-02-28) Fahimeh Papiahmadi; Nastaran Mirsamiyazdi; Radman Amiri; Leila Masoudiyekta; Hadi Bahrami; Mahnaz Nosratabadi
    Background: Preeclampsia is one of the complications of pregnancy that endangers the life of the mother and the fetus. This complication accounts for 18% of maternal mortality and is the second leading cause of maternal mortality in Iran. Various studies have shown the important role of platelets in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia. Objectives: This study was conducted to evaluate platelet parameters in patients with preeclampsia compared to healthy pregnant women who were referred to Ganjavian hospital in Dezful city in 2019. Methods: In this study, which is a retrospective case-control study, the files of women who gave birth in Ganjavian hospital in 2019 were examined. The files of the case group, which included people with preeclampsia, were selected as available samples (104 people), and the control group, which included pregnant women without preeclampsia, were randomly selected using a table of random numbers (104 cases). Criteria for entering the study in the group with preeclampsia included BP ≥ 140/90 mmHg, proteinuria of more than 300 mg in 24-hour urine or 30 mg consistently in random urine samples, and gestational age over 20 weeks. Also, people with any underlying disease, such as diabetes, chronic hypertension, known platelet disorders, multiple birth, and drug use (heparin, aspirin) in the group with preeclampsia were excluded from the study. The data of this study were analyzed using SPSS software version 20, and independent t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test at a significant level lower than 0.05. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in demographic factors between the two case and control groups. There was a statistically significant difference between the mean hemoglobin in healthy women 11.91 ± 1.30 and preeclampsia 10.89 ± 1.09 (P < 0.0001). Also, according to the findings, the individuals of the two groups had a significant difference in terms of mean platelet volume (MPV): Healthy women: 10.79 ± 1.24 and preeclampsia women: 12.98 ± 1.16 (P < 0.0001). Also, the results of the Mann-Whitney U test showed that there was a statistically significant difference between the number of platelets in healthy women (284.52 ± 60.58 mm3) and preeclampsia women (149.30 ± 30.38 mm3) (P < 0.0001). Conclusions: Considering the importance of reducing the complications and mortality of pregnant mothers, early detection of changes in platelet factors during pregnancy can be a predictive factor in identifying people at risk for preeclampsia.
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    The Variations in the Circle of Willis on 64-Multislice Spiral Computed Tomography
    (Brieflands, 2022-08-31) Tu-Minh Hoang; Trang Vo Huynh; Anh-Van Huynh Ly; My-Viet Pham
    Background: The circle of Willis is an anastomotic network of arteries surrounding the base of the brain. People with effective collateral circulation will lower the risk of transient ischemic attack and stroke than those with ineffective collaterals. Objectives: The research aims to study the diameter of arteries and determine the frequency and patterns of anatomical variations in Vietnamese patients' anterior and posterior parts of the Willis polygon. Methods: This descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted in Vietnam at Bach Mai hospital between July 2010 and July 2011. A total of 102 MSCT 64 examinations were conducted on adult patients with suspected cerebrovascular diseases such as stroke, cerebral infarction, etc. The average internal diameter of arteries was estimated using descriptive statistics. Wilcoxon signed-rank test paired t-test to compare diameter on the left and right sides. Results: There are four types of anterior parts and twelve types of posterior parts in the circle of Willis. Of the 102 subjects, 29.41% experienced the anterior part of circle of Willis (CoW), in which aplastic anterior communicating artery (ACoA) is the most common type (21.57%). 70.59% of all subjects have variations in the posterior part of CoW, and bilateral aplastic posterior communicating artery (PCoA) is the most common type (20.59%). We also report the diameter of cerebral artery segments of the circle of Willis. There are six variations in the circle of Willis based on the correlation between pre communicating part P1 of posterior cerebral artery (PCA) (P1) and PCoA diameter. The most popular type is adult configuration (53.92%). Conclusions: We provided the prevalence and the pattern of the brain vascular variants of the circle of Willis in a group of patients diagnosed with ischemic stroke. Understanding the variations and diameter of the circle of Willis is of great importance in interventional radiology for various endovascular interventions in Vietnamese patients.
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    Genotyping of ARNTL and CLOCK Circadian Rhythm Gene Polymorphisms in Iranian Patients with Multiple Sclerosis
    (Brieflands, 2022-05-31) Mohammad Saeed Abbasi; Amirhossein Behrouzi; Abbas Moridnia
    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a central nervous system disease accompanied by variable symptoms such as optic neuritis, fatigue, spasticity, neuro-urological dysfunction, paresthesia, and headache. The frequency of MS was reported differently in geographical latitude, which may be in relation to genetic changes in circadian rhythm regulator genes, including aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like (ARNTL) and circadian locomotor output cycles kaput (CLOCK). Objectives: This study aimed at genotyping rs3789327 in the ARNTL and rs6811520 in the CLOCK genes and their association with MS in the Iranian population. Methods: Totally, 100 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and 100 healthy controls were recruited. DNA extracted from the whole blood of all patients was genotyped by high-resolution melting (HRM) real-time PCR method for the rs3789327 and rs6811520 within the ARNTL and CLOCK genes, respectively, then the HRM results were confirmed by Sanger sequencing method. Results: Our results showed a statistically significant difference in genotype distributions in the CLOCK gene (rs6811520, P = 0.023) in MS and healthy controls, but in the ARNTL gene, there was no significant change in rs3789327 genotypic distribution between MS patients and healthy individuals (P = 0.2). The TC genotype of the rs6811520 was associated with a higher risk for MS [P = 0.006, OR = 4.164, 95% confidence intervals (CI) 1.43 - 12.09]. Conclusions: The present results suggested that genetic variations in the CLOCK gene are a risk factor for MS.