Risk Assessment of Petroleum Products Loading Arm by BTA Technique

Background: Loading of petroleum products consists of several parts, of which the arm platform section is known to be the source of most accidents. Objectives: Therefore, this study was done to evaluate the risk of arm loading platforms using the bow-tie analysis (BTA) technique to identify the causes and the probability of occurrence of hazardous events. Methods: In this study, we first identified the risks of the loading arm using the expert’s judgment. The risk of overflow is considered as the top event. Then, the basic events were identified by the fault tree analysis (FTA), and the possible consequences of the top event were predicted using the event tree. Next, using the computational equations, the probability of spillover and its consequences were calculated. The path of the risk event from the causal phase to the consequent phase was also illustrated by sketching the structure of the BTA. Results: A total of 14 basic events and 8 intermediate events were involved in the occurrence of the top event, and 5 consequences were identified for the risk of spillover. The probability of the top event occurring was calculated to be 3.12 × 10-7. Conclusions: According to the results of this study, tank overflow is one of the most important hazards in the loading arm section.