Evaluating the Depression, Anxiety, Stress, and Predictors of Psychological Morbidity Among COVID-19 Survivors in Mashhad, Iran

Abstract
Background: The outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has led to public panic and psychological problems. In this regard, few studies have reported the post-discharge mental health status of COVID-19 survivors. Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate the mental health status of COVID-19 survivors and determine the risk factors of adverse psychological outcomes. Methods: This cross-sectional study consisted of 188 COVID-19 survivors discharged from hospital. Data were recorded using social media applications. To evaluate the mental health status, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and Depressive Anxiety and Stress Scale 42 (DASS-42) were used. Ordinal regression with a logit link was used to assess the simultaneous effect of variables. Results: The mean age of participants was 56.4 ± 9.6 years, and the majority of patients were male (62.2%). According to HADS, 81 (43.1%) and 24 (12.8%) patients suffered from anxiety and depression, respectively. Using DASS-42, we reported at least a mild degree of depression [23 (12.2%)], anxiety [20 (10.6%)], and stress [74 (39.4%)] among the discharged patients. Depression, anxiety, and stress were significantly associated with length of hospital stay (P < 0.05). In addition, there was a direct association between stress and patients’ number of children (β = 0.38, P = 0.02). Conclusions: Depression, anxiety, and stress are relatively high among COVID-19 survivors. Length of hospital stay and number of children were identified as the predisposing factors for adverse psychological outcomes.
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