Anti-Toxoplasma Effects of Silver Nanoparticles Based on Ginger Extract: An in Vitro Study

Background: Toxoplasmosis is a tropical disease that is opportunistic in immunocompromised patients. Objectives: In this research, our goal was to assess the anti-parasitic effect of silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) based on ginger extract on T. gondii tachyzoites. Methods: This study was conducted to assess the effects of various concentrations of nanoparticles on the parasite using light microscopy. The MTT assay was also conducted to evaluate the toxic effects of silver nanoparticles based on ginger extract on macrophage cells. In addition, the potential apoptosis of T. gondii by silver NPs was assessed using the flow cytometry technique. Results: Based on the tachyzoite assay using microscopic examination, it was observed that the higher the NPs concentration and the longer the parasite’s exposure to NPs, the greater the lethal effect of NPs on tachyzoites. The IC50 (inhibitory concentration) for NPs against T. gondii tachyzoites was 2 ppm. Also, according to the MTT assay, the 40 ppm concentration of nanoparticles had the most toxic impact on macrophages. Moreover, silver NPs led to apoptosis in approximately 55.22% of tachyzoites based on the flow cytometry technique. Conclusions: Based on the above results, it is concluded that silver nanoparticles based on ginger extract have a lethal effect on T. gondii and induce apoptosis in this parasite. This study encourages further studies in vivo.