A Pediatric Parathyroid Carcinoma: An Unusual Clinical Presentation and Mini-review

Introduction: Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is a rare condition in the pediatric population. Parathyroid carcinoma (PC) is a very uncommon cause of PHPT, accounting for < 1% of pediatric PHPT cases. It is challenging to distinguish between parathyroid adenoma (PA), the most common cause of PHPT, and PC. In this report, we described a young female who presented with a history of progressive limping and was finally diagnosed with PC. Case Presentation: A 15-year-old girl presented with progressive limping and bone pain for 8 years. She was referred by an orthopedic surgeon because of elevated intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) for further evaluation. Physical examination revealed a large, firm, and non-tender neck mass, left hip tenderness, and limited range of motion. The initial biochemistry tests showed a borderline high calcium level of 10.8 mg/dl, an elevated iPTH level of 2876 pg/mL, and a decreased phosphorus level of 2.4 mg/dL. The 99mTechnetium (Tc) sestamibi scan displayed early intense activity in the right thyroid lobe persisting in the three-hour repeat scan, compatible with a parathyroid lesion. The patient underwent right-sided neck exploration and parathyroidectomy. Intraoperative and pathology findings confirmed the diagnosis of PC. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining revealed creatine kinase (CK) and CD31 in endothelial cells of the tumor. Ki67 staining was also positive in 2% - 3% of tumor cells. The whole exome sequencing (WES) study was negative for cell division cycle 73 (CDC73) and multiple endocrine neoplasia 1 (MEN1) genes. Conclusions: PC should be considered as a differential diagnosis of PHPT in the pediatric population, even in the presence of mild hypercalcemia.