Apoptosis Induced by Viola odorata Extract in Human Glioblastoma Multiforme

Plant extracts contain useful components that could be considered in pharmacotherapy. Due to containing anticancer components such as phenol, cyclotide, and anthocyanins, Viola odorata (sweet violet) is one of the most important components used in cancer therapy. The current study aimed at examining antitumor activity and related mechanisms to V. odorata on primary culture of human glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). It was observed that survival rate of the obtained astrocytes from human GBM tumor decreased with V. odorata hydroalcoholic extract (10 - 500 µg/mL) in a dose- and time-dependent manner and DNA fragmentation happened in concentrations above 100 µg/mL of this extract. Further observations revealed that induced apoptosis activates mitochondrial death pathway, release cytochorome C, and activates caspase-3. The current study findings revealed the effect mechanism of V. odorata extract and suggested its potential application in cancer therapy.