Protective Effect of Elaeagnus angustifolia L. Fruit Hydroalcoholic Extract on Cyclophosphamide-Induced Nephrotoxicity in Mice

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Background: Cyclophosphamide (CP) is one of the most popular bifunctional alkylating agents, which is utilized in the treatment of numerous cancer diseases and has toxic side effects such as nephrotoxicity, hematotoxicity, mutagenicity, and immunotoxicity. In this study, Elaeagnus angustifolia fruit extract (EAFE), a natural plant extract, was examined for its antioxidant activity against CP-induced renal oxidative damage in mice. Methods: In this experimental study, 30 male Swiss albino mice (25 - 30 g) were separated into five groups. Group 1 received normal saline for 5 days; group 2 was treated with CP 200 mg/kg single intraperitoneal (i.p) dose only on the 5th day; groups 3 to 5 received EAFE at doses of 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg, respectively, administered orally during 5 days, and CP on the 5th day 1 hour after the last dose of extract administration. Then on the 6th day, the mice were sacrificed. Blood samples were collected to determine serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine (Cr) levels. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) in kidney tissue were also examined. Histological assessment was undertaken on kidney samples taken from all groups. Results: The results obtained from our study showed a significant increase in the levels of MDA, Cr, and BUN and a decrease in GSH following CP injection. Pre-treatment with EAFE showed a decrease in the levels of MDA, Cr, and BUN and an increase in GSH in all doses; however, the most significant reduction was observed at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. In addition, the nephroprotective effect of EAFE was confirmed by histological evaluation of the kidneys. Conclusions: Our results indicate that EAFE has protective effects against CP-induced renal damage possibly by amelioration of biochemical indices and oxidative stress parameters.