Comparison of the Effectiveness of Dexmedetomidine-Ketamine and Midazolam-Ketamine Regimens in Sedation of Children Treated with Extracorporeal Shock Wave Lithotripsy

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Background: Despite the high acceptability of the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) procedure in the treatment of urinary stones at all ages, it is necessary to use a variety of analgesic drugs during the procedure, especially among children. Objectives: We aimed to evaluate the effect of dexmedetomidine-ketamine (DK) and midazolam-ketamine (MK) compounds in the sedation of children (2-6 years old) undergoing ESWL. Methods: This randomized, double-blind clinical trial was performed on children aged 2 to 6 years with renal stones undergoing ESWL. The participants were randomly assigned to the DK and MK regimen groups (dexmedetomidine, 0.05 mcg/kg within 10 minutes infusion; midazolam, 0.05 mg/kg within 3 minutes infusion; ketamine, 0.5 mg/kg bolus injection). The patients were assessed with respect to sedation degree, post-procedure hemodynamic status, recovery time and awakening, and operator satisfaction. Results: Recovery time was significantly shorter in the DK group than in the MK group. Also, the DK regimen was more analgesic than the MK regimen; therefore, the need to repeat ketamine administration was less. There was no difference between the 2 methods in terms of cooperation at the time of separation of children from their parents, patient cooperation during the procedure, average verbal response time and average cooperation time after entering recovery, and operator satisfaction with the operation. No side effects were observed in the 2 groups. Conclusions: Ketamine with dexmedetomidine is associated with greater analgesia and shorter recovery time; however, sedation time was longer (insignificant) in ketamine with midazolam than in ketamine with dexmedetomidine. Thus, ketamine with dexmedetomidine is more preferred.