Endoscopic Transsphenoidal Approach for Surgical Treatment of Growth Hormone Secreting Pituitary Adenoma: Endocrinological Outcome in 49 Patients Based on 2010 Consensus Criteria for Remission - Preliminary Results

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Background: Nowadays, the endoscopic transsphenoidal approach is the initial option for resection of all pituitary adenomas. The current study reported the experience with endoscopic transsphenoidal surgery remission rates using the 2010 consensus criteria, predictors of remission, and the associated complications. Methods: A prospectively collected database of 49 patients with acromegaly who underwent endoscopic endonasal transsphenoidal surgery was analyzed. Tumors were classified according to size, as well as the Knosp and the Hardy-Wilson classifications. Endocrinological remission was defined as normal insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I level and either a suppressed growth hormone (GH) level < 0.4 ng/mL during an oral glucose tolerance test, or a random GH level < 1.0 ng/mL at least 3 months after the surgery. The extent of resection was evaluated on postoperative contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Results: Biochemical remission was achieved in 7 of 9 (77.8%) microadenoma and 28 of 40 (70%) macroadenoma. The total remission rate was 71.4% and gross total resection was achieved in 45 of 49 (91.8%) patients. Tumor size, age, gender, history of prior surgery, suprasellar extension, and sphenoid sinus invasion were not associated with remission rate. Preoperative variables predictive of remission included the Knosp score (P = 0.041) and GH levels (P = 0.047). Two patients (4.1%) experienced postoperative pan hypopituitarism, and permanent DI was observed in 3 (6.1%) patients. One patient (2%) had cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leaks treated with serial lumbar punctures. The median follow-up period was 25.45 months; ranged from 3 to 49. Conclusions: Endoscopic transsphenoidal adenoma resection leads to a high rate of endocrinological remission in patients with low acromegaly complication. Patients with high preoperative GH levels and the Knosp scores are less likely to achieve remission.