Potential Methods to Improve Self-management in Those with Type 2 Diabetes: A Narrative Review

Context: The ability of self-manage was important for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients and it was supported and depend on the method used. We aimed to summarize the potential method of self-management to improve self-empowerment. Evidence Acquisition: To obtain the related data, 5 databases, including Scopus, Science Direct, ProQuest, CINAHL, and SAGE, were comprehensively searched. The search was done in advance using the Boolean operator. The full texts of articles presenting data on self-management methods were screened and retrieved. Results: A total of 22 studies were included in this review. Various self-management techniques were covered with primary and secondary outcomes. Primary outcomes included blood pressure, fasting blood glucose (FBG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), and high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Secondary outcomes included knowledge, self-efficacy, lifestyle habits, physical activity, diet, smoking, medical treatment, support, and health behavior. A goal-setting-oriented approach was effective in setting targets and gaining support from family members. A family-centered approach was effective in taking care of and taking good care of patients with T2DM. Strength training exercises provide patients with a choice of physical activity that can help them manage their blood sugar and blood pressure. Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a stress-reduction technique. The patient’s acceptance of the disease and treatment for diabetes is aided by education. Conclusions: A successful self-management method was one which balances and adapts to the patient's condition. Regardless of the age of the patients, the overall findings from the review suggest that self-management methods can help patients become healthier and improve their quality of life by controlling their hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) level.